Monoids

Content created by Egbert Rijke, Fredrik Bakke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides, favonia and Gregor Perčič.

Created on 2022-03-17.
Last modified on 2023-09-21.

module group-theory.monoids where
Imports
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.propositions
open import foundation.sets
open import foundation.subtypes
open import foundation.unit-type
open import foundation.unital-binary-operations
open import foundation.universe-levels

open import group-theory.semigroups

open import structured-types.h-spaces
open import structured-types.wild-monoids

Idea

Monoids are unital semigroups.

Definition

is-unital-Semigroup :
  {l : Level}  Semigroup l  UU l
is-unital-Semigroup G = is-unital (mul-Semigroup G)

Monoid :
  (l : Level)  UU (lsuc l)
Monoid l = Σ (Semigroup l) is-unital-Semigroup

module _
  {l : Level} (M : Monoid l)
  where

  semigroup-Monoid : Semigroup l
  semigroup-Monoid = pr1 M

  is-unital-Monoid : is-unital-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid
  is-unital-Monoid = pr2 M

  type-Monoid : UU l
  type-Monoid = type-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

  set-Monoid : Set l
  set-Monoid = set-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

  is-set-type-Monoid : is-set type-Monoid
  is-set-type-Monoid = is-set-type-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

  mul-Monoid : type-Monoid  type-Monoid  type-Monoid
  mul-Monoid = mul-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

  mul-Monoid' : type-Monoid  type-Monoid  type-Monoid
  mul-Monoid' y x = mul-Monoid x y

  ap-mul-Monoid :
    {x x' y y' : type-Monoid} 
    x  x'  y  y'  mul-Monoid x y  mul-Monoid x' y'
  ap-mul-Monoid = ap-mul-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

  associative-mul-Monoid :
    (x y z : type-Monoid) 
    mul-Monoid (mul-Monoid x y) z  mul-Monoid x (mul-Monoid y z)
  associative-mul-Monoid = associative-mul-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

  has-unit-Monoid : is-unital mul-Monoid
  has-unit-Monoid = pr2 M

  unit-Monoid : type-Monoid
  unit-Monoid = pr1 has-unit-Monoid

  left-unit-law-mul-Monoid : (x : type-Monoid)  mul-Monoid unit-Monoid x  x
  left-unit-law-mul-Monoid = pr1 (pr2 has-unit-Monoid)

  right-unit-law-mul-Monoid : (x : type-Monoid)  mul-Monoid x unit-Monoid  x
  right-unit-law-mul-Monoid = pr2 (pr2 has-unit-Monoid)

  left-swap-mul-Monoid :
    {x y z : type-Monoid}  mul-Monoid x y  mul-Monoid y x 
    mul-Monoid x (mul-Monoid y z) 
    mul-Monoid y (mul-Monoid x z)
  left-swap-mul-Monoid =
    left-swap-mul-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

  right-swap-mul-Monoid :
    {x y z : type-Monoid}  mul-Monoid y z  mul-Monoid z y 
    mul-Monoid (mul-Monoid x y) z 
    mul-Monoid (mul-Monoid x z) y
  right-swap-mul-Monoid =
    right-swap-mul-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

  interchange-mul-mul-Monoid :
    {x y z w : type-Monoid}  mul-Monoid y z  mul-Monoid z y 
    mul-Monoid (mul-Monoid x y) (mul-Monoid z w) 
    mul-Monoid (mul-Monoid x z) (mul-Monoid y w)
  interchange-mul-mul-Monoid =
    interchange-mul-mul-Semigroup semigroup-Monoid

Properties

For any semigroup G, being unital is a property

abstract
  all-elements-equal-is-unital-Semigroup :
    {l : Level} (G : Semigroup l)  all-elements-equal (is-unital-Semigroup G)
  all-elements-equal-is-unital-Semigroup
    ( X , μ , associative-μ)
    ( e , left-unit-e , right-unit-e)
    ( e' , left-unit-e' , right-unit-e') =
    eq-type-subtype
      ( λ e 
        prod-Prop
          ( Π-Prop (type-Set X)  y  Id-Prop X (μ e y) y))
          ( Π-Prop (type-Set X)  x  Id-Prop X (μ x e) x)))
      ( (inv (left-unit-e' e))  (right-unit-e e'))

abstract
  is-prop-is-unital-Semigroup :
    {l : Level} (G : Semigroup l)  is-prop (is-unital-Semigroup G)
  is-prop-is-unital-Semigroup G =
    is-prop-all-elements-equal (all-elements-equal-is-unital-Semigroup G)

is-unital-Semigroup-Prop : {l : Level} (G : Semigroup l)  Prop l
pr1 (is-unital-Semigroup-Prop G) = is-unital-Semigroup G
pr2 (is-unital-Semigroup-Prop G) = is-prop-is-unital-Semigroup G

Monoids are H-spaces

h-space-Monoid : {l : Level} (M : Monoid l)  H-Space l
pr1 (pr1 (h-space-Monoid M)) = type-Monoid M
pr2 (pr1 (h-space-Monoid M)) = unit-Monoid M
pr1 (pr2 (h-space-Monoid M)) = mul-Monoid M
pr1 (pr2 (pr2 (h-space-Monoid M))) = left-unit-law-mul-Monoid M
pr1 (pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (h-space-Monoid M)))) = right-unit-law-mul-Monoid M
pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (h-space-Monoid M)))) =
  eq-is-prop (is-set-type-Monoid M _ _)

Monoids are wild monoids

wild-monoid-Monoid : {l : Level} (M : Monoid l)  Wild-Monoid l
pr1 (wild-monoid-Monoid M) = h-space-Monoid M
pr1 (pr2 (wild-monoid-Monoid M)) = associative-mul-Monoid M
pr1 (pr2 (pr2 (wild-monoid-Monoid M))) y z =
  eq-is-prop (is-set-type-Monoid M _ _)
pr1 (pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (wild-monoid-Monoid M)))) x z =
  eq-is-prop (is-set-type-Monoid M _ _)
pr1 (pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (wild-monoid-Monoid M))))) x y =
  eq-is-prop (is-set-type-Monoid M _ _)
pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (pr2 (wild-monoid-Monoid M))))) = star

See also

Recent changes