The absolute value function on the integers

Content created by Fredrik Bakke, Egbert Rijke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides, Bryan Lu and malarbol.

Created on 2022-01-26.
Last modified on 2024-03-28.

module elementary-number-theory.absolute-value-integers where
open import elementary-number-theory.addition-integers
open import elementary-number-theory.addition-natural-numbers
open import elementary-number-theory.inequality-natural-numbers
open import elementary-number-theory.integers
open import elementary-number-theory.multiplication-integers
open import elementary-number-theory.multiplication-natural-numbers
open import elementary-number-theory.natural-numbers
open import elementary-number-theory.nonnegative-integers
open import elementary-number-theory.positive-integers

open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.coproduct-types
open import foundation.function-types
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.unit-type


The absolute value of an integer is the natural number with the same distance from 0.


abs-ℤ :   
abs-ℤ (inl x) = succ-ℕ x
abs-ℤ (inr (inl star)) = zero-ℕ
abs-ℤ (inr (inr x)) = succ-ℕ x

int-abs-ℤ :   
int-abs-ℤ = int-ℕ  abs-ℤ


The absolute value of int-ℕ n is n itself

abs-int-ℕ : (n : )  abs-ℤ (int-ℕ n)  n
abs-int-ℕ zero-ℕ = refl
abs-int-ℕ (succ-ℕ n) = refl

|-x| = |x|

abs-neg-ℤ : (x : )  abs-ℤ (neg-ℤ x)  abs-ℤ x
abs-neg-ℤ (inl x) = refl
abs-neg-ℤ (inr (inl star)) = refl
abs-neg-ℤ (inr (inr x)) = refl

If x is nonnegative, then int-abs-ℤ x = x

int-abs-is-nonnegative-ℤ : (x : )  is-nonnegative-ℤ x  int-abs-ℤ x  x
int-abs-is-nonnegative-ℤ (inr (inl star)) h = refl
int-abs-is-nonnegative-ℤ (inr (inr x)) h = refl

|x| = 0 if and only if x = 0

eq-abs-ℤ : (x : )  is-zero-ℕ (abs-ℤ x)  is-zero-ℤ x
eq-abs-ℤ (inr (inl star)) p = refl

abs-eq-ℤ : (x : )  is-zero-ℤ x  is-zero-ℕ (abs-ℤ x)
abs-eq-ℤ .zero-ℤ refl = refl

|x - 1| ≤ |x| + 1

predecessor-law-abs-ℤ :
  (x : )  (abs-ℤ (pred-ℤ x)) ≤-ℕ (succ-ℕ (abs-ℤ x))
predecessor-law-abs-ℤ (inl x) =
  refl-leq-ℕ (succ-ℕ x)
predecessor-law-abs-ℤ (inr (inl star)) =
  refl-leq-ℕ zero-ℕ
predecessor-law-abs-ℤ (inr (inr zero-ℕ)) =
predecessor-law-abs-ℤ (inr (inr (succ-ℕ x))) =
  preserves-leq-succ-ℕ x (succ-ℕ x) (succ-leq-ℕ x)

|x + 1| ≤ |x| + 1

successor-law-abs-ℤ :
  (x : )  (abs-ℤ (succ-ℤ x)) ≤-ℕ (succ-ℕ (abs-ℤ x))
successor-law-abs-ℤ (inl zero-ℕ) =
successor-law-abs-ℤ (inl (succ-ℕ x)) =
  preserves-leq-succ-ℕ x (succ-ℕ x) (succ-leq-ℕ x)
successor-law-abs-ℤ (inr (inl star)) =
  refl-leq-ℕ zero-ℕ
successor-law-abs-ℤ (inr (inr x)) =
  refl-leq-ℕ (succ-ℕ x)

The absolute value function is subadditive

subadditive-abs-ℤ :
  (x y : )  (abs-ℤ (x +ℤ y)) ≤-ℕ ((abs-ℤ x) +ℕ (abs-ℤ y))
subadditive-abs-ℤ x (inl zero-ℕ) =
    ( ap abs-ℤ (right-add-neg-one-ℤ x))
    ( predecessor-law-abs-ℤ x)
    ( refl)
subadditive-abs-ℤ x (inl (succ-ℕ y)) =
    ( ap abs-ℤ (right-predecessor-law-add-ℤ x (inl y)))
    ( transitive-leq-ℕ
      ( abs-ℤ (pred-ℤ (x +ℤ (inl y))))
      ( succ-ℕ (abs-ℤ (x +ℤ (inl y))))
      ( (abs-ℤ x) +ℕ (succ-ℕ (succ-ℕ y)))
      ( subadditive-abs-ℤ x (inl y))
      ( predecessor-law-abs-ℤ (x +ℤ (inl y))))
    ( refl)
subadditive-abs-ℤ x (inr (inl star)) =
    ( ap abs-ℤ (right-unit-law-add-ℤ x))
    ( refl-leq-ℕ (abs-ℤ x))
    ( refl)
subadditive-abs-ℤ x (inr (inr zero-ℕ)) =
    ( ap abs-ℤ (right-add-one-ℤ x))
    ( successor-law-abs-ℤ x)
    ( refl)
subadditive-abs-ℤ x (inr (inr (succ-ℕ y))) =
    ( ap abs-ℤ (right-successor-law-add-ℤ x (inr (inr y))))
    ( transitive-leq-ℕ
      ( abs-ℤ (succ-ℤ (x +ℤ (inr (inr y)))))
      ( succ-ℕ (abs-ℤ (x +ℤ (inr (inr y)))))
      ( succ-ℕ ((abs-ℤ x) +ℕ (succ-ℕ y)))
      ( subadditive-abs-ℤ x (inr (inr y)))
      ( successor-law-abs-ℤ (x +ℤ (inr (inr y)))))
    ( refl)

|-x| = |x|

negative-law-abs-ℤ :
  (x : )  abs-ℤ (neg-ℤ x)  abs-ℤ x
negative-law-abs-ℤ (inl x) = refl
negative-law-abs-ℤ (inr (inl star)) = refl
negative-law-abs-ℤ (inr (inr x)) = refl

If x is positive then |x| is positive

is-positive-abs-ℤ :
  (x : )  is-positive-ℤ x  is-positive-ℤ (int-abs-ℤ x)
is-positive-abs-ℤ (inr (inr x)) H = star

If x is nonzero then |x| is nonzero

is-nonzero-abs-ℤ :
  (x : )  is-positive-ℤ x  is-nonzero-ℕ (abs-ℤ x)
is-nonzero-abs-ℤ (inr (inr x)) H = is-nonzero-succ-ℕ x

The absolute value function is multiplicative

multiplicative-abs-ℤ' :
  (x y : )  abs-ℤ (explicit-mul-ℤ x y)  (abs-ℤ x) *ℕ (abs-ℤ y)
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inl x) (inl y) =
  abs-int-ℕ _
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inl x) (inr (inl star)) =
  inv (right-zero-law-mul-ℕ x)
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inl x) (inr (inr y)) =
  ( abs-neg-ℤ (inl ((x *ℕ (succ-ℕ y)) +ℕ y))) 
  ( abs-int-ℕ ((succ-ℕ x) *ℕ (succ-ℕ y)))
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inr (inl star)) (inl y) =
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inr (inr x)) (inl y) =
  ( abs-neg-ℤ (inl ((x *ℕ (succ-ℕ y)) +ℕ y))) 
  ( abs-int-ℕ (succ-ℕ ((x *ℕ (succ-ℕ y)) +ℕ y)))
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inr (inl star)) (inr (inl star)) =
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inr (inl star)) (inr (inr x)) =
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inr (inr x)) (inr (inl star)) =
  inv (right-zero-law-mul-ℕ (succ-ℕ x))
multiplicative-abs-ℤ' (inr (inr x)) (inr (inr y)) =
  abs-int-ℕ _

multiplicative-abs-ℤ :
  (x y : )  abs-ℤ (x *ℤ y)  (abs-ℤ x) *ℕ (abs-ℤ y)
multiplicative-abs-ℤ x y =
  ap abs-ℤ (compute-mul-ℤ x y)  multiplicative-abs-ℤ' x y

|(-x)y| = |xy|

left-negative-law-mul-abs-ℤ :
  (x y : )  abs-ℤ (x *ℤ y)  abs-ℤ ((neg-ℤ x) *ℤ y)
left-negative-law-mul-abs-ℤ x y =
    abs-ℤ (x *ℤ y)
     abs-ℤ (neg-ℤ (x *ℤ y))
      by (inv (negative-law-abs-ℤ (x *ℤ y)))
     abs-ℤ ((neg-ℤ x) *ℤ y)
      by (ap abs-ℤ (inv (left-negative-law-mul-ℤ x y)))

|x(-y)| = |xy|

right-negative-law-mul-abs-ℤ :
  (x y : )  abs-ℤ (x *ℤ y)  abs-ℤ (x *ℤ (neg-ℤ y))
right-negative-law-mul-abs-ℤ x y =
    abs-ℤ (x *ℤ y)
     abs-ℤ (neg-ℤ (x *ℤ y))
      by (inv (negative-law-abs-ℤ (x *ℤ y)))
     abs-ℤ (x *ℤ (neg-ℤ y))
      by (ap abs-ℤ (inv (right-negative-law-mul-ℤ x y)))

|(-x)(-y)| = |xy|

double-negative-law-mul-abs-ℤ :
  (x y : )  abs-ℤ (x *ℤ y)  abs-ℤ ((neg-ℤ x) *ℤ (neg-ℤ y))
double-negative-law-mul-abs-ℤ x y =
  (right-negative-law-mul-abs-ℤ x y)  (left-negative-law-mul-abs-ℤ x (neg-ℤ y))

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