Content created by Fredrik Bakke, Egbert Rijke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides and Victor Blanchi.

Created on 2022-02-07.
Last modified on 2024-04-11.

module foundation-core.sets where
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.fundamental-theorem-of-identity-types
open import foundation.universe-levels

open import foundation-core.contractible-types
open import foundation-core.embeddings
open import foundation-core.equivalences
open import foundation-core.identity-types
open import foundation-core.injective-maps
open import foundation-core.propositions
open import foundation-core.truncated-types
open import foundation-core.truncation-levels


A type is a set if its identity types are propositions.


is-set : {l : Level}  UU l  UU l
is-set A = (x y : A)  is-prop (x  y)

Set : (l : Level)  UU (lsuc l)
Set l = Σ (UU l) is-set

module _
  {l : Level} (X : Set l)

  type-Set : UU l
  type-Set = pr1 X

    is-set-type-Set : is-set type-Set
    is-set-type-Set = pr2 X

  Id-Prop : (x y : type-Set)  Prop l
  Id-Prop x y = (x  y , is-set-type-Set x y)


A type is a set if and only if it satisfies Streicher's axiom K

instance-axiom-K : {l : Level}  UU l  UU l
instance-axiom-K A = (x : A) (p : x  x)  refl  p

axiom-K-Level : (l : Level)  UU (lsuc l)
axiom-K-Level l = (A : UU l)  instance-axiom-K A

axiom-K : UUω
axiom-K = {l : Level}  axiom-K-Level l

module _
  {l : Level} {A : UU l}

    is-set-axiom-K' :
      instance-axiom-K A  (x y : A)  all-elements-equal (x  y)
    is-set-axiom-K' K x .x refl q with K x q
    ... | refl = refl

    is-set-axiom-K : instance-axiom-K A  is-set A
    is-set-axiom-K H x y = is-prop-all-elements-equal (is-set-axiom-K' H x y)

    axiom-K-is-set : is-set A  instance-axiom-K A
    axiom-K-is-set H x p =
      ( inv (contraction (is-proof-irrelevant-is-prop (H x x) refl) refl)) 
      ( contraction (is-proof-irrelevant-is-prop (H x x) refl) p)

If a reflexive binary relation maps into the identity type of A, then A is a set

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} (R : A  A  UU l2)
  (p : (x y : A)  is-prop (R x y)) (ρ : (x : A)  R x x)
  (i : (x y : A)  R x y  x  y)

    is-equiv-prop-in-id : (x y : A)  is-equiv (i x y)
    is-equiv-prop-in-id x =
      fundamental-theorem-id-retraction x (i x)
        ( λ y 
            ( ind-Id x  z p  R x z) (ρ x) y)
            ( λ r  eq-is-prop (p x y)))

    is-set-prop-in-id : is-set A
    is-set-prop-in-id x y = is-prop-is-equiv' (is-equiv-prop-in-id x y) (p x y)

Any proposition is a set

  is-set-is-prop :
    {l : Level} {P : UU l}  is-prop P  is-set P
  is-set-is-prop = is-trunc-succ-is-trunc neg-one-𝕋

set-Prop :
  {l : Level}  Prop l  Set l
set-Prop P = truncated-type-succ-Truncated-Type neg-one-𝕋 P

Sets are closed under equivalences

  is-set-is-equiv :
    {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} (B : UU l2) (f : A  B)  is-equiv f 
    is-set B  is-set A
  is-set-is-equiv = is-trunc-is-equiv zero-𝕋

  is-set-equiv :
    {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} (B : UU l2) (e : A  B) 
    is-set B  is-set A
  is-set-equiv = is-trunc-equiv zero-𝕋

  is-set-is-equiv' :
    {l1 l2 : Level} (A : UU l1) {B : UU l2} (f : A  B)  is-equiv f 
    is-set A  is-set B
  is-set-is-equiv' = is-trunc-is-equiv' zero-𝕋

  is-set-equiv' :
    {l1 l2 : Level} (A : UU l1) {B : UU l2} (e : A  B) 
    is-set A  is-set B
  is-set-equiv' = is-trunc-equiv' zero-𝕋

  is-set-equiv-is-set :
    {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} 
    is-set A  is-set B  is-set (A  B)
  is-set-equiv-is-set = is-trunc-equiv-is-trunc zero-𝕋

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} (A : Set l1) (B : Set l2)

  equiv-Set : UU (l1  l2)
  equiv-Set = type-Set A  type-Set B

  equiv-set-Set : Set (l1  l2)
  pr1 equiv-set-Set = equiv-Set
  pr2 equiv-set-Set =
    is-set-equiv-is-set (is-set-type-Set A) (is-set-type-Set B)

If a type injects into a set, then it is a set

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2}

    is-set-is-injective :
      {f : A  B}  is-set B  is-injective f  is-set A
    is-set-is-injective {f} H I =
        ( λ x y  f x  f y)
        ( λ x y  H (f x) (f y))
        ( λ x  refl)
        ( λ x y  I)

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