Integer fractions

Content created by Egbert Rijke, Fredrik Bakke, Fernando Chu, Julian KG, fernabnor and louismntnu.

Created on 2023-04-08.
Last modified on 2023-11-24.

module elementary-number-theory.integer-fractions where
Imports
open import elementary-number-theory.greatest-common-divisor-integers
open import elementary-number-theory.integers
open import elementary-number-theory.multiplication-integers
open import elementary-number-theory.nonzero-integers

open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.binary-relations
open import foundation.cartesian-product-types
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.equivalence-relations
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.negation
open import foundation.propositions
open import foundation.sets
open import foundation.universe-levels

Idea

The type of integer fractions is the type of pairs n/m consisting of an integer n and a positive integer m. The type of rational numbers is a retract of the type of fractions.

Definitions

The type of fractions

fraction-ℤ : UU lzero
fraction-ℤ =  × positive-ℤ

The numerator of a fraction

numerator-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ  
numerator-fraction-ℤ x = pr1 x

The denominator of a fraction

positive-denominator-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ  positive-ℤ
positive-denominator-fraction-ℤ x = pr2 x

denominator-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ  
denominator-fraction-ℤ x = pr1 (positive-denominator-fraction-ℤ x)

is-positive-denominator-fraction-ℤ :
  (x : fraction-ℤ)  is-positive-ℤ (denominator-fraction-ℤ x)
is-positive-denominator-fraction-ℤ x = pr2 (positive-denominator-fraction-ℤ x)

Inclusion of the integers

in-fraction-ℤ-ℤ :   fraction-ℤ
pr1 (in-fraction-ℤ-ℤ x) = x
pr2 (in-fraction-ℤ-ℤ x) = one-positive-ℤ

Negative one, zero and one

neg-one-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ
neg-one-fraction-ℤ = in-fraction-ℤ-ℤ neg-one-ℤ

is-neg-one-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ  UU lzero
is-neg-one-fraction-ℤ x = (x  neg-one-fraction-ℤ)

zero-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ
zero-fraction-ℤ = in-fraction-ℤ-ℤ zero-ℤ

is-zero-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ  UU lzero
is-zero-fraction-ℤ x = (x  zero-fraction-ℤ)

is-nonzero-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ  UU lzero
is-nonzero-fraction-ℤ k = ¬ (is-zero-fraction-ℤ k)

one-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ
one-fraction-ℤ = in-fraction-ℤ-ℤ one-ℤ

is-one-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ  UU lzero
is-one-fraction-ℤ x = (x  one-fraction-ℤ)

Properties

Denominators are nonzero

is-nonzero-denominator-fraction-ℤ :
  (x : fraction-ℤ)  is-nonzero-ℤ (denominator-fraction-ℤ x)
is-nonzero-denominator-fraction-ℤ x =
  is-nonzero-is-positive-ℤ
    ( denominator-fraction-ℤ x)
    ( is-positive-denominator-fraction-ℤ x)

The type of fractions is a set

is-set-fraction-ℤ : is-set fraction-ℤ
is-set-fraction-ℤ = is-set-Σ is-set-ℤ λ _  is-set-positive-ℤ
sim-fraction-ℤ-Prop : fraction-ℤ  fraction-ℤ  Prop lzero
sim-fraction-ℤ-Prop x y =
  Id-Prop ℤ-Set
    ((numerator-fraction-ℤ x) *ℤ (denominator-fraction-ℤ y))
    ((numerator-fraction-ℤ y) *ℤ (denominator-fraction-ℤ x))

sim-fraction-ℤ : fraction-ℤ  fraction-ℤ  UU lzero
sim-fraction-ℤ x y = type-Prop (sim-fraction-ℤ-Prop x y)

is-prop-sim-fraction-ℤ : (x y : fraction-ℤ)  is-prop (sim-fraction-ℤ x y)
is-prop-sim-fraction-ℤ x y = is-prop-type-Prop (sim-fraction-ℤ-Prop x y)

refl-sim-fraction-ℤ : is-reflexive sim-fraction-ℤ
refl-sim-fraction-ℤ x = refl

symmetric-sim-fraction-ℤ : is-symmetric sim-fraction-ℤ
symmetric-sim-fraction-ℤ x y r = inv r

transitive-sim-fraction-ℤ : is-transitive sim-fraction-ℤ
transitive-sim-fraction-ℤ x y z s r =
  is-injective-right-mul-ℤ
    ( denominator-fraction-ℤ y)
    ( is-nonzero-denominator-fraction-ℤ y)
    ( ( associative-mul-ℤ
        ( numerator-fraction-ℤ x)
        ( denominator-fraction-ℤ z)
        ( denominator-fraction-ℤ y)) 
      ( ap
        ( (numerator-fraction-ℤ x) *ℤ_)
        ( commutative-mul-ℤ
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ z)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ y))) 
      ( inv
        ( associative-mul-ℤ
          ( numerator-fraction-ℤ x)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ y)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ z))) 
      ( ap ( _*ℤ (denominator-fraction-ℤ z)) r) 
      ( associative-mul-ℤ
        ( numerator-fraction-ℤ y)
        ( denominator-fraction-ℤ x)
        ( denominator-fraction-ℤ z)) 
      ( ap
        ( (numerator-fraction-ℤ y) *ℤ_)
        ( commutative-mul-ℤ
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ x)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ z))) 
      ( inv
        ( associative-mul-ℤ
          ( numerator-fraction-ℤ y)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ z)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ x))) 
      ( ap (_*ℤ (denominator-fraction-ℤ x)) s) 
      ( associative-mul-ℤ
        ( numerator-fraction-ℤ z)
        ( denominator-fraction-ℤ y)
        ( denominator-fraction-ℤ x)) 
      ( ap
        ( (numerator-fraction-ℤ z) *ℤ_)
        ( commutative-mul-ℤ
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ y)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ x))) 
      ( inv
        ( associative-mul-ℤ
          ( numerator-fraction-ℤ z)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ x)
          ( denominator-fraction-ℤ y))))

equivalence-relation-sim-fraction-ℤ : equivalence-relation lzero fraction-ℤ
pr1 equivalence-relation-sim-fraction-ℤ = sim-fraction-ℤ-Prop
pr1 (pr2 equivalence-relation-sim-fraction-ℤ) = refl-sim-fraction-ℤ
pr1 (pr2 (pr2 equivalence-relation-sim-fraction-ℤ)) = symmetric-sim-fraction-ℤ
pr2 (pr2 (pr2 equivalence-relation-sim-fraction-ℤ)) = transitive-sim-fraction-ℤ

The greatest common divisor of the numerator and a denominator of a fraction is always a positive integer

is-positive-gcd-numerator-denominator-fraction-ℤ :
  (x : fraction-ℤ) 
  is-positive-ℤ (gcd-ℤ (numerator-fraction-ℤ x) (denominator-fraction-ℤ x))
is-positive-gcd-numerator-denominator-fraction-ℤ x =
  is-positive-gcd-is-positive-right-ℤ
    ( numerator-fraction-ℤ x)
    ( denominator-fraction-ℤ x)
    ( is-positive-denominator-fraction-ℤ x)

is-nonzero-gcd-numerator-denominator-fraction-ℤ :
  (x : fraction-ℤ) 
  is-nonzero-ℤ (gcd-ℤ (numerator-fraction-ℤ x) (denominator-fraction-ℤ x))
is-nonzero-gcd-numerator-denominator-fraction-ℤ x =
  is-nonzero-is-positive-ℤ
    ( gcd-ℤ (numerator-fraction-ℤ x) (denominator-fraction-ℤ x))
    ( is-positive-gcd-numerator-denominator-fraction-ℤ x)

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