The Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein–Escardó theorem

Content created by Fredrik Bakke, Egbert Rijke and Jonathan Prieto-Cubides.

Created on 2022-05-20.
Last modified on 2024-03-12.

module foundation.cantor-schroder-bernstein-escardo where
open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.decidable-types
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import
open import foundation.perfect-images
open import foundation.split-surjective-maps
open import foundation.universe-levels

open import foundation-core.coproduct-types
open import foundation-core.embeddings
open import foundation-core.empty-types
open import foundation-core.equivalences
open import foundation-core.fibers-of-maps
open import foundation-core.identity-types
open import foundation-core.injective-maps
open import foundation-core.negation


The classical Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem asserts that from any pair of injective maps f : A → B and g : B → A we can construct a bijection between A and B. In a recent generalization, Escardó proved that a Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem also holds for ∞-groupoids. His generalization asserts that given two types that embed into each other, then the types are equivalent. [Esc21]


type-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó : (l1 l2 : Level)  UU (lsuc (l1  l2))
type-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó l1 l2 =
  {X : UU l1} {Y : UU l2}  (X  Y)  (Y  X)  X  Y


The law of excluded middle implies Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} (lem : LEM (l1  l2))

  module _
    {X : UU l1} {Y : UU l2} (f : X  Y) (g : Y  X)

    map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' :
      (x : X)  is-decidable (is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) x)  Y
    map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' x (inl y) =
      inverse-of-perfect-image x y
    map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' x (inr y) =
      map-emb f x

    map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó :
      X  Y
    map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó x =
      map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' x
        ( is-decidable-is-perfect-image-is-emb (is-emb-map-emb g) lem x)

    is-injective-map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó :
      is-injective map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó
    is-injective-map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó {x} {x'} =
      l (is-decidable-is-perfect-image-is-emb (is-emb-map-emb g) lem x)
      (is-decidable-is-perfect-image-is-emb (is-emb-map-emb g) lem x')
      l :
        (d : is-decidable (is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) x))
        (d' : is-decidable (is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) x')) 
        ( map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' x d) 
        ( map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' x' d') 
        x  x'
      l (inl ρ) (inl ρ') p =
        inv (is-section-inverse-of-perfect-image x ρ) 
          (ap (map-emb g) p  is-section-inverse-of-perfect-image x' ρ')
      l (inl ρ) (inr nρ') p =
        ex-falso (perfect-image-has-distinct-image x' x nρ' ρ (inv p))
      l (inr ) (inl ρ') p =
        ex-falso (perfect-image-has-distinct-image x x'  ρ' p)
      l (inr ) (inr nρ') p =
        is-injective-is-emb (is-emb-map-emb f) p

    is-split-surjective-map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó :
      is-split-surjective map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó
    is-split-surjective-map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó y =
      pair x p
      a :
          ( is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) (map-emb g y)) 
        Σ ( X)
          ( λ x 
            ( (d : is-decidable (is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) x)) 
              map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' x d  y))
      a (inl γ) =
        pair (map-emb g y) ψ
        ψ :
          ( d :
              ( is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) (map-emb g y))) 
          map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' (map-emb g y) d  y
        ψ (inl v') =
            { is-emb-g = is-emb-map-emb g}
            ( y)
            ( v')
        ψ (inr v) = ex-falso (v γ)
      a (inr γ) =
        pair x ψ
        w :
          Σ ( fiber (map-emb f) y)
            ( λ s  ¬ (is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) (pr1 s)))
        w =
            ( is-emb-map-emb f)
            ( is-emb-map-emb g)
            ( lem)
            ( y)
            ( γ)
        x : X
        x = pr1 (pr1 w)
        p : map-emb f x  y
        p = pr2 (pr1 w)
        ψ :
          ( d : is-decidable (is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) x)) 
          map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' x d  y
        ψ (inl v) = ex-falso ((pr2 w) v)
        ψ (inr v) = p
      b :
        Σ ( X)
          ( λ x 
            ( (d : is-decidable (is-perfect-image (map-emb f) (map-emb g) x)) 
              map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó' x d  y))
      b =
        a ( is-decidable-is-perfect-image-is-emb
            ( is-emb-map-emb g)
            ( lem)
            ( map-emb g y))
      x : X
      x = pr1 b
      p : map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó x  y
      p = pr2 b (is-decidable-is-perfect-image-is-emb (is-emb-map-emb g) lem x)

    is-equiv-map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó :
      is-equiv map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó
    is-equiv-map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó =

  Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó :
    type-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó l1 l2
  pr1 (Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó f g) =
    map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó f g
  pr2 (Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó f g) =
    is-equiv-map-Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein-Escardó f g


Martín Hötzel Escardó. The CantorSchröderBernstein Theorem for ∞-groupoids. Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures, 16(3):363–366, 09 2021. arXiv:2002.07079, doi:10.1007/s40062-021-00284-6.
Martín Hötzel Escardó and contributors. TypeTopology. GitHub repository. Agda development. URL:

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