Undirected rees

Content created by Fredrik Bakke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides and Egbert Rijke.

Created on 2023-01-26.
Last modified on 2024-01-17.

module trees.undirected-trees where
Imports
open import elementary-number-theory.natural-numbers

open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.contractible-types
open import foundation.decidable-equality
open import foundation.decidable-types
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.empty-types
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.mere-equality
open import foundation.propositional-truncations
open import foundation.propositions
open import foundation.sets
open import foundation.transport-along-identifications
open import foundation.universe-levels

open import graph-theory.paths-undirected-graphs
open import graph-theory.trails-undirected-graphs
open import graph-theory.undirected-graphs
open import graph-theory.walks-undirected-graphs

Idea

An undirected tree is an undirected graph such that the type of trails from x to y is contractible for any two vertices x and y.

Definition

is-tree-Undirected-Graph :
  {l1 l2 : Level} (G : Undirected-Graph l1 l2)  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
is-tree-Undirected-Graph G =
  (x y : vertex-Undirected-Graph G)  is-contr (trail-Undirected-Graph G x y)

Undirected-Tree : (l1 l2 : Level)  UU (lsuc l1  lsuc l2)
Undirected-Tree l1 l2 = Σ (Undirected-Graph l1 l2) is-tree-Undirected-Graph

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} (T : Undirected-Tree l1 l2)
  where

  undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree : Undirected-Graph l1 l2
  undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree = pr1 T

  is-tree-undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree :
    is-tree-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree
  is-tree-undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree = pr2 T

  node-Undirected-Tree : UU l1
  node-Undirected-Tree =
    vertex-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  unordered-pair-nodes-Undirected-Tree : UU (lsuc lzero  l1)
  unordered-pair-nodes-Undirected-Tree =
    unordered-pair-vertices-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  edge-Undirected-Tree : unordered-pair-nodes-Undirected-Tree  UU l2
  edge-Undirected-Tree = edge-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  walk-Undirected-Tree :
    node-Undirected-Tree  node-Undirected-Tree  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
  walk-Undirected-Tree = walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (w : walk-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    node-Undirected-Tree  UU l1
  is-node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    is-vertex-on-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  walk-Undirected-Tree x y  UU l1
  node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    vertex-on-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  node-node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (w : walk-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree w  node-Undirected-Tree
  node-node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree w = pr1

  is-edge-on-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (w : walk-Undirected-Tree x y)
    (p : unordered-pair-nodes-Undirected-Tree) 
    edge-Undirected-Tree p  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
  is-edge-on-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    is-edge-on-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  edge-on-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} 
    walk-Undirected-Tree x y  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
  edge-on-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    edge-on-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  edge-edge-on-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (w : walk-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    edge-on-walk-Undirected-Tree w 
    Σ unordered-pair-nodes-Undirected-Tree edge-Undirected-Tree
  edge-edge-on-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    edge-edge-on-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-trail-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} 
    walk-Undirected-Tree x y  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
  is-trail-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    is-trail-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  trail-Undirected-Tree :
    node-Undirected-Tree  node-Undirected-Tree  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
  trail-Undirected-Tree =
    trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  walk-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} 
    trail-Undirected-Tree x y  walk-Undirected-Tree x y
  walk-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    walk-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-trail-walk-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (t : trail-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    is-trail-walk-Undirected-Tree (walk-trail-Undirected-Tree t)
  is-trail-walk-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    is-trail-walk-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-node-on-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (t : trail-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    node-Undirected-Tree  UU l1
  is-node-on-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    is-vertex-on-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  node-on-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  trail-Undirected-Tree x y  UU l1
  node-on-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    vertex-on-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  node-node-on-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (w : trail-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    node-on-trail-Undirected-Tree w  node-Undirected-Tree
  node-node-on-trail-Undirected-Tree w = pr1

  is-edge-on-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (w : trail-Undirected-Tree x y)
    (p : unordered-pair-nodes-Undirected-Tree) 
    edge-Undirected-Tree p  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
  is-edge-on-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    is-edge-on-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  edge-on-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} 
    trail-Undirected-Tree x y  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
  edge-on-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    edge-on-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  edge-edge-on-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (w : trail-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    edge-on-trail-Undirected-Tree w 
    Σ unordered-pair-nodes-Undirected-Tree edge-Undirected-Tree
  edge-edge-on-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    edge-edge-on-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-path-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  walk-Undirected-Tree x y  UU l1
  is-path-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    is-path-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  path-Undirected-Tree :
    node-Undirected-Tree  node-Undirected-Tree  UU (lsuc lzero  l1  l2)
  path-Undirected-Tree = path-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  walk-path-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  path-Undirected-Tree x y 
    walk-Undirected-Tree x y
  walk-path-Undirected-Tree =
    walk-path-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  standard-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    (x y : node-Undirected-Tree)  trail-Undirected-Tree x y
  standard-trail-Undirected-Tree x y = center (pr2 T x y)

  standard-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    (x y : node-Undirected-Tree)  walk-Undirected-Tree x y
  standard-walk-Undirected-Tree x y =
    walk-trail-Undirected-Tree (standard-trail-Undirected-Tree x y)

  is-trail-standard-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} 
    is-trail-walk-Undirected-Tree (standard-walk-Undirected-Tree x y)
  is-trail-standard-walk-Undirected-Tree {x} {y} =
    is-trail-walk-trail-Undirected-Tree (standard-trail-Undirected-Tree x y)

  length-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  walk-Undirected-Tree x y  
  length-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    length-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  length-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  trail-Undirected-Tree x y  
  length-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    length-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-constant-walk-Undirected-Tree-Prop :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  walk-Undirected-Tree x y  Prop lzero
  is-constant-walk-Undirected-Tree-Prop =
    is-constant-walk-Undirected-Graph-Prop undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-constant-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  walk-Undirected-Tree x y  UU lzero
  is-constant-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    is-constant-walk-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-decidable-is-constant-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (w : walk-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    is-decidable (is-constant-walk-Undirected-Tree w)
  is-decidable-is-constant-walk-Undirected-Tree =
    is-decidable-is-constant-walk-Undirected-Graph
      undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree-Prop :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  trail-Undirected-Tree x y  Prop lzero
  is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree-Prop =
    is-constant-trail-Undirected-Graph-Prop undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree}  trail-Undirected-Tree x y  UU lzero
  is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    is-constant-trail-Undirected-Graph undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

  is-decidable-is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree} (t : trail-Undirected-Tree x y) 
    is-decidable (is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree t)
  is-decidable-is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree =
    is-decidable-is-constant-trail-Undirected-Graph
      undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree

Distance between nodes of a tree

  dist-Undirected-Tree : node-Undirected-Tree  node-Undirected-Tree  
  dist-Undirected-Tree x y =
    length-trail-Undirected-Tree (standard-trail-Undirected-Tree x y)

Properties

Trees are acyclic graphs

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} (T : Undirected-Tree l1 l2)
  where

  is-refl-is-circuit-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree T} (t : trail-Undirected-Tree T x y)
    (p : x  y) 
    tr (walk-Undirected-Tree T x) p refl-walk-Undirected-Graph 
    walk-trail-Undirected-Tree T t
  is-refl-is-circuit-walk-Undirected-Tree {x} t refl =
    ap
      ( walk-trail-Undirected-Tree T)
      ( eq-is-contr
        ( is-tree-undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T x x)
        { pair
          ( refl-walk-Undirected-Graph)
          ( is-trail-refl-walk-Undirected-Graph
            ( undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T) {x})}
        { t})

  is-empty-edge-on-walk-is-circuit-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree T} (t : trail-Undirected-Tree T x y) 
    (p : x  y)  is-empty (edge-on-trail-Undirected-Tree T t)
  is-empty-edge-on-walk-is-circuit-walk-Undirected-Tree {x} t refl e =
    is-empty-edge-on-walk-refl-walk-Undirected-Graph
      ( undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T)
      ( x)
      ( tr
        ( edge-on-walk-Undirected-Tree T)
        ( inv (is-refl-is-circuit-walk-Undirected-Tree t refl))
        ( e))

If x and y are merely equal vertices, then the standard trail between them is constant

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} (T : Undirected-Tree l1 l2) {x : node-Undirected-Tree T}
  where

  is-constant-standard-trail-eq-Undirected-Tree :
    {y : node-Undirected-Tree T}  (x  y) 
    is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree T (standard-trail-Undirected-Tree T x y)
  is-constant-standard-trail-eq-Undirected-Tree {y} refl =
    inv
      ( ap
        ( length-walk-Undirected-Tree T)
        ( is-refl-is-circuit-walk-Undirected-Tree T
        ( standard-trail-Undirected-Tree T x y)
        ( refl)))

  is-constant-standard-trail-mere-eq-Undirected-Tree :
    {y : node-Undirected-Tree T} 
    mere-eq x y 
    is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree T (standard-trail-Undirected-Tree T x y)
  is-constant-standard-trail-mere-eq-Undirected-Tree {y} H =
    apply-universal-property-trunc-Prop H
      ( is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree-Prop T
        ( standard-trail-Undirected-Tree T x y))
      ( is-constant-standard-trail-eq-Undirected-Tree)

  eq-is-constant-standard-trail-Undirected-Tree :
    {y : node-Undirected-Tree T} 
    is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree T (standard-trail-Undirected-Tree T x y) 
    x  y
  eq-is-constant-standard-trail-Undirected-Tree {y} H =
    eq-constant-walk-Undirected-Graph
      ( undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T)
      ( pair (standard-walk-Undirected-Tree T x y) H)

The type of nodes of a tree is a set

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} (T : Undirected-Tree l1 l2) {x : node-Undirected-Tree T}
  where

  is-set-node-Undirected-Tree : is-set (node-Undirected-Tree T)
  is-set-node-Undirected-Tree =
    is-set-mere-eq-in-id
      ( λ x y H 
        eq-constant-walk-Undirected-Graph
          ( undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T)
          ( pair
            ( standard-walk-Undirected-Tree T x y)
            ( is-constant-standard-trail-mere-eq-Undirected-Tree T H)))

  node-Undirected-Tree-Set : Set l1
  pr1 node-Undirected-Tree-Set = node-Undirected-Tree T
  pr2 node-Undirected-Tree-Set = is-set-node-Undirected-Tree

The type of nodes of a tree has decidable equality

has-decidable-equality-node-Undirected-Tree :
  {l1 l2 : Level} (T : Undirected-Tree l2 l1) 
  has-decidable-equality (node-Undirected-Tree T)
has-decidable-equality-node-Undirected-Tree T x y =
  is-decidable-iff
    ( eq-is-constant-standard-trail-Undirected-Tree T)
    ( is-constant-standard-trail-eq-Undirected-Tree T)
    ( is-decidable-is-constant-trail-Undirected-Tree T
      ( standard-trail-Undirected-Tree T x y))

Any trail in a tree is a path

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} (T : Tree l1 l2)
  where

  is-path-is-trail-walk-Undirected-Tree :
    {x y : node-Undirected-Tree T} (w : walk-Undirected-Tree T x y) →
    is-trail-walk-Undirected-Tree T w → is-path-walk-Undirected-Tree T w
  is-path-is-trail-walk-Undirected-Tree {x} {y} w H {pair u KU} {pair v K} p with
    is-vertex-on-first-or-second-segment-walk-Undirected-Graph
      (undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T) w (pair u KU) (pair v K)
  ... | inl L = {!!}
    where
    w1' : walk-Undirected-Tree T x u
    w1' =
      first-segment-walk-Undirected-Graph (undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T) w (pair u KU)
    w1 : walk-Undirected-Tree T x v
    w1 =
      first-segment-walk-Undirected-Graph
        ( undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T)
        ( w1')
        ( pair v L)
    w' : walk-Undirected-Tree T v u
    w' = {!!}
  ... | inr L = {!!}
    where
    w1 : walk-Undirected-Tree T x u
    w1 =
      first-segment-walk-Undirected-Graph (undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T) w (pair u KU)

{-
    where
    w1 : walk-Undirected-Tree T x (node-node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree T w u)
    w1 =
      first-segment-walk-Undirected-Graph (undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T) w u
    w2' : walk-Undirected-Tree T (node-node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree T w u) y
    w2' =
      second-segment-walk-Undirected-Graph (undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T) w u
    w2 : walk-Undirected-Tree T (node-node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree T w u) (node-node-on-walk-Undirected-Tree T w v)
    w2 = {!first-segment-walk-Undirected-Graph (undirected-graph-Undirected-Tree T) w2' !}
  -}

See also

There are many variations of the notion of trees, all of which are subtly different:

Recent changes