The distance between natural numbers

Content created by Egbert Rijke, Fredrik Bakke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides, Eléonore Mangel and Maša Žaucer.

Created on 2022-01-26.
Last modified on 2023-09-11.

module elementary-number-theory.distance-natural-numbers where
open import elementary-number-theory.addition-natural-numbers
open import elementary-number-theory.inequality-natural-numbers
open import elementary-number-theory.multiplication-natural-numbers
open import elementary-number-theory.natural-numbers
open import elementary-number-theory.strict-inequality-natural-numbers

open import foundation.action-on-identifications-binary-functions
open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.coproduct-types
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.function-types
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.transport-along-identifications
open import foundation.unit-type
open import foundation.universe-levels


The distance function between natural numbers measures how far two natural numbers are apart. In the agda-unimath library we often prefer to work with dist-ℕ over the partially defined subtraction operation.


dist-ℕ :     
dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n = n
dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) zero-ℕ = succ-ℕ m
dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) (succ-ℕ n) = dist-ℕ m n

dist-ℕ' :     
dist-ℕ' m n = dist-ℕ n m

ap-dist-ℕ :
  {m n m' n' : }  m  m'  n  n'  dist-ℕ m n  dist-ℕ m' n'
ap-dist-ℕ p q = ap-binary dist-ℕ p q


Two natural numbers are equal if and only if their distance is zero

eq-dist-ℕ : (m n : )  is-zero-ℕ (dist-ℕ m n)  m  n
eq-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ p = refl
eq-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) (succ-ℕ n) p = ap succ-ℕ (eq-dist-ℕ m n p)

dist-eq-ℕ' : (n : )  is-zero-ℕ (dist-ℕ n n)
dist-eq-ℕ' zero-ℕ = refl
dist-eq-ℕ' (succ-ℕ n) = dist-eq-ℕ' n

dist-eq-ℕ : (m n : )  m  n  is-zero-ℕ (dist-ℕ m n)
dist-eq-ℕ m .m refl = dist-eq-ℕ' m

is-one-dist-succ-ℕ : (x : )  is-one-ℕ (dist-ℕ x (succ-ℕ x))
is-one-dist-succ-ℕ zero-ℕ = refl
is-one-dist-succ-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) = is-one-dist-succ-ℕ x

is-one-dist-succ-ℕ' : (x : )  is-one-ℕ (dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) x)
is-one-dist-succ-ℕ' zero-ℕ = refl
is-one-dist-succ-ℕ' (succ-ℕ x) = is-one-dist-succ-ℕ' x

The distance function is symmetric

symmetric-dist-ℕ :
  (m n : )  dist-ℕ m n  dist-ℕ n m
symmetric-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ = refl
symmetric-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ n) = refl
symmetric-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) zero-ℕ = refl
symmetric-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) (succ-ℕ n) = symmetric-dist-ℕ m n

The distance from zero

left-unit-law-dist-ℕ :
  (n : )  dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n  n
left-unit-law-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ = refl
left-unit-law-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ n) = refl

right-unit-law-dist-ℕ :
  (n : )  dist-ℕ n zero-ℕ  n
right-unit-law-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ = refl
right-unit-law-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ n) = refl

The triangle inequality

triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ :
  (m n k : )  (dist-ℕ m n) ≤-ℕ ((dist-ℕ m k) +ℕ (dist-ℕ k n))
triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ = star
triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ k) = star
triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ n) zero-ℕ =
    ( leq-ℕ (succ-ℕ n))
    ( inv (left-unit-law-add-ℕ (succ-ℕ n)))
    ( refl-leq-ℕ (succ-ℕ n))
triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ n) (succ-ℕ k) =
    ( inv (ap succ-ℕ (left-unit-law-dist-ℕ n)))
    ( triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n k)
    ( ( ap (succ-ℕ  (_+ℕ (dist-ℕ k n))) (left-unit-law-dist-ℕ k)) 
      ( inv (left-successor-law-add-ℕ k (dist-ℕ k n))))
triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) zero-ℕ zero-ℕ = refl-leq-ℕ (succ-ℕ m)
triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ k) =
    ( inv (ap succ-ℕ (right-unit-law-dist-ℕ m)))
    ( triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ m zero-ℕ k)
    ( ap (succ-ℕ  ((dist-ℕ m k) +ℕ_)) (right-unit-law-dist-ℕ k))
triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) (succ-ℕ n) zero-ℕ =
    ( dist-ℕ m n)
    ( transitive-leq-ℕ
      ( dist-ℕ m n)
      ( succ-ℕ ((dist-ℕ m zero-ℕ) +ℕ (dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n)))
      ( succ-ℕ (succ-ℕ ((dist-ℕ m zero-ℕ) +ℕ (dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n))))
      ( succ-leq-ℕ (succ-ℕ ((dist-ℕ m zero-ℕ) +ℕ (dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n))))
      ( transitive-leq-ℕ
        ( dist-ℕ m n)
        ( (dist-ℕ m zero-ℕ) +ℕ (dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n))
        ( succ-ℕ ((dist-ℕ m zero-ℕ) +ℕ (dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n)))
        ( succ-leq-ℕ ((dist-ℕ m zero-ℕ) +ℕ (dist-ℕ zero-ℕ n)))
        ( triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ m n zero-ℕ)))
    ( ( ap
        ( succ-ℕ  succ-ℕ)
        ( ap-add-ℕ (right-unit-law-dist-ℕ m) (left-unit-law-dist-ℕ n))) 
      ( inv (left-successor-law-add-ℕ m (succ-ℕ n))))
triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) (succ-ℕ n) (succ-ℕ k) =
  triangle-inequality-dist-ℕ m n k

dist-ℕ x y is a solution in z to x + z = y

is-additive-right-inverse-dist-ℕ :
  (x y : )  x ≤-ℕ y  x +ℕ (dist-ℕ x y)  y
is-additive-right-inverse-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ H = refl
is-additive-right-inverse-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ y) star =
  left-unit-law-add-ℕ (succ-ℕ y)
is-additive-right-inverse-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) (succ-ℕ y) H =
  ( left-successor-law-add-ℕ x (dist-ℕ x y)) 
  ( ap succ-ℕ (is-additive-right-inverse-dist-ℕ x y H))

rewrite-left-add-dist-ℕ :
  (x y z : )  x +ℕ y  z  x  dist-ℕ y z
rewrite-left-add-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ .zero-ℕ refl = refl
rewrite-left-add-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ y) .(succ-ℕ (zero-ℕ +ℕ y)) refl =
  ( inv (dist-eq-ℕ' y)) 
  ( inv (ap (dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ y)) (left-unit-law-add-ℕ (succ-ℕ y))))
rewrite-left-add-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) zero-ℕ .(succ-ℕ x) refl = refl
rewrite-left-add-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) (succ-ℕ y) ._ refl =
  rewrite-left-add-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) y ((succ-ℕ x) +ℕ y) refl

rewrite-left-dist-add-ℕ :
  (x y z : )  y ≤-ℕ z  x  dist-ℕ y z  x +ℕ y  z
rewrite-left-dist-add-ℕ .(dist-ℕ y z) y z H refl =
  ( commutative-add-ℕ (dist-ℕ y z) y) 
  ( is-additive-right-inverse-dist-ℕ y z H)

rewrite-right-add-dist-ℕ :
  (x y z : )  x +ℕ y  z  y  dist-ℕ x z
rewrite-right-add-dist-ℕ x y z p =
  rewrite-left-add-dist-ℕ y x z (commutative-add-ℕ y x  p)

rewrite-right-dist-add-ℕ :
  (x y z : )  x ≤-ℕ z  y  dist-ℕ x z  x +ℕ y  z
rewrite-right-dist-add-ℕ x .(dist-ℕ x z) z H refl =
  is-additive-right-inverse-dist-ℕ x z H

is-difference-dist-ℕ :
  (x y : )  x ≤-ℕ y  x +ℕ (dist-ℕ x y)  y
is-difference-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ H = refl
is-difference-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ y) H = left-unit-law-add-ℕ (succ-ℕ y)
is-difference-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) (succ-ℕ y) H =
  ( left-successor-law-add-ℕ x (dist-ℕ x y)) 
  ( ap succ-ℕ (is-difference-dist-ℕ x y H))

is-difference-dist-ℕ' :
  (x y : )  x ≤-ℕ y  (dist-ℕ x y) +ℕ x  y
is-difference-dist-ℕ' x y H =
  ( commutative-add-ℕ (dist-ℕ x y) x) 
  ( is-difference-dist-ℕ x y H)

The distance from n to n + m is m

dist-add-ℕ : (x y : )  dist-ℕ x (x +ℕ y)  y
dist-add-ℕ x y = inv (rewrite-right-add-dist-ℕ x y (x +ℕ y) refl)

dist-add-ℕ' : (x y : )  dist-ℕ (x +ℕ y) x  y
dist-add-ℕ' x y = symmetric-dist-ℕ (x +ℕ y) x  dist-add-ℕ x y

If three elements are ordered linearly, then their distances add up

triangle-equality-dist-ℕ :
  (x y z : )  (x ≤-ℕ y)  (y ≤-ℕ z) 
  (dist-ℕ x y) +ℕ (dist-ℕ y z)  dist-ℕ x z
triangle-equality-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ H1 H2 = refl
triangle-equality-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ z) star star =
  ap succ-ℕ (left-unit-law-add-ℕ z)
triangle-equality-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ y) (succ-ℕ z) star H2 =
  left-successor-law-add-ℕ y (dist-ℕ y z) 
  ap succ-ℕ (is-additive-right-inverse-dist-ℕ y z H2)
triangle-equality-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) (succ-ℕ y) (succ-ℕ z) H1 H2 =
  triangle-equality-dist-ℕ x y z H1 H2

cases-dist-ℕ :
  (x y z : )  UU lzero
cases-dist-ℕ x y z =
  ( (dist-ℕ x y) +ℕ (dist-ℕ y z)  dist-ℕ x z) +
  ( ( (dist-ℕ y z) +ℕ (dist-ℕ x z)  dist-ℕ x y) +
    ( (dist-ℕ x z) +ℕ (dist-ℕ x y)  dist-ℕ y z))

is-total-dist-ℕ :
  (x y z : )  cases-dist-ℕ x y z
is-total-dist-ℕ x y z with order-three-elements-ℕ x y z
is-total-dist-ℕ x y z | inl (inl (pair H1 H2)) =
  inl (triangle-equality-dist-ℕ x y z H1 H2)
is-total-dist-ℕ x y z | inl (inr (pair H1 H2)) =
    ( inl
      ( ( commutative-add-ℕ (dist-ℕ y z) (dist-ℕ x z)) 
        ( ( ap ((dist-ℕ x z) +ℕ_) (symmetric-dist-ℕ y z)) 
          ( triangle-equality-dist-ℕ x z y H1 H2))))
is-total-dist-ℕ x y z | inr (inl (inl (pair H1 H2))) =
    ( inl
      ( ( ap ((dist-ℕ y z) +ℕ_) (symmetric-dist-ℕ x z)) 
        ( ( triangle-equality-dist-ℕ y z x H1 H2) 
          ( symmetric-dist-ℕ y x))))
is-total-dist-ℕ x y z | inr (inl (inr (pair H1 H2))) =
    ( inr
      ( ( ap ((dist-ℕ x z) +ℕ_) (symmetric-dist-ℕ x y)) 
        ( ( commutative-add-ℕ (dist-ℕ x z) (dist-ℕ y x)) 
          ( triangle-equality-dist-ℕ y x z H1 H2))))
is-total-dist-ℕ x y z | inr (inr (inl (pair H1 H2))) =
    ( inr
      ( ( ap (_+ℕ (dist-ℕ x y)) (symmetric-dist-ℕ x z)) 
        ( ( triangle-equality-dist-ℕ z x y H1 H2) 
          ( symmetric-dist-ℕ z y))))
is-total-dist-ℕ x y z | inr (inr (inr (pair H1 H2))) =
    ( ( ap-add-ℕ (symmetric-dist-ℕ x y) (symmetric-dist-ℕ y z)) 
      ( ( commutative-add-ℕ (dist-ℕ y x) (dist-ℕ z y)) 
        ( ( triangle-equality-dist-ℕ z y x H1 H2) 
          ( symmetric-dist-ℕ z x))))

If x ≤ y then the distance between x and y is less than y

leq-dist-ℕ :
  (x y : )  x ≤-ℕ y  dist-ℕ x y ≤-ℕ y
leq-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ H = refl-leq-ℕ zero-ℕ
leq-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ y) H = refl-leq-ℕ y
leq-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) (succ-ℕ y) H =
  transitive-leq-ℕ (dist-ℕ x y) y (succ-ℕ y) (succ-leq-ℕ y) (leq-dist-ℕ x y H)

If x < b and y < b, then dist-ℕ x y < b

strict-upper-bound-dist-ℕ :
  (b x y : )  le-ℕ x b  le-ℕ y b  le-ℕ (dist-ℕ x y) b
strict-upper-bound-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ b) zero-ℕ y H K = K
strict-upper-bound-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ b) (succ-ℕ x) zero-ℕ H K = H
strict-upper-bound-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ b) (succ-ℕ x) (succ-ℕ y) H K =
  preserves-le-succ-ℕ (dist-ℕ x y) b (strict-upper-bound-dist-ℕ b x y H K)

If x < y then dist-ℕ x (succ-ℕ y) = succ-ℕ (dist-ℕ x y)

right-successor-law-dist-ℕ :
  (x y : )  leq-ℕ x y  dist-ℕ x (succ-ℕ y)  succ-ℕ (dist-ℕ x y)
right-successor-law-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ star = refl
right-successor-law-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ y) star = refl
right-successor-law-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) (succ-ℕ y) H =
  right-successor-law-dist-ℕ x y H

left-successor-law-dist-ℕ :
  (x y : )  leq-ℕ y x  dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) y  succ-ℕ (dist-ℕ x y)
left-successor-law-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ star = refl
left-successor-law-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) zero-ℕ star = refl
left-successor-law-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ x) (succ-ℕ y) H =
  left-successor-law-dist-ℕ x y H

dist-ℕ is translation invariant

translation-invariant-dist-ℕ :
  (k m n : )  dist-ℕ (k +ℕ m) (k +ℕ n)  dist-ℕ m n
translation-invariant-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ m n =
  ap-dist-ℕ (left-unit-law-add-ℕ m) (left-unit-law-add-ℕ n)
translation-invariant-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ k) m n =
  ( ap-dist-ℕ (left-successor-law-add-ℕ k m) (left-successor-law-add-ℕ k n)) 
  ( translation-invariant-dist-ℕ k m n)

translation-invariant-dist-ℕ' :
  (k m n : )  dist-ℕ (m +ℕ k) (n +ℕ k)  dist-ℕ m n
translation-invariant-dist-ℕ' k m n =
  ( ap-dist-ℕ (commutative-add-ℕ m k) (commutative-add-ℕ n k)) 
  ( translation-invariant-dist-ℕ k m n)

dist-ℕ is linear with respect to scalar multiplication

left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ :
  (m n k : )  k *ℕ (dist-ℕ m n)  dist-ℕ (k *ℕ m) (k *ℕ n)
left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ = refl
left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ k) =
  left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ zero-ℕ k
left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ n) zero-ℕ = refl
left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ n) (succ-ℕ k) =
    ( dist-ℕ' ((succ-ℕ k) *ℕ (succ-ℕ n)))
    ( inv (right-zero-law-mul-ℕ (succ-ℕ k)))
left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) zero-ℕ zero-ℕ = refl
left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) zero-ℕ (succ-ℕ k) =
    ( dist-ℕ ((succ-ℕ k) *ℕ (succ-ℕ m)))
    ( inv (right-zero-law-mul-ℕ (succ-ℕ k)))
left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) (succ-ℕ n) zero-ℕ = refl
left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ (succ-ℕ m) (succ-ℕ n) (succ-ℕ k) =
    ( ( ap-dist-ℕ
        ( right-successor-law-mul-ℕ (succ-ℕ k) m)
        ( right-successor-law-mul-ℕ (succ-ℕ k) n)) 
      ( ( translation-invariant-dist-ℕ
          ( succ-ℕ k)
          ( (succ-ℕ k) *ℕ m)
          ( (succ-ℕ k) *ℕ n)) 
        ( inv (left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ m n (succ-ℕ k)))))

right-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ :
  (x y k : )  (dist-ℕ x y) *ℕ k  dist-ℕ (x *ℕ k) (y *ℕ k)
right-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ x y k =
  ( commutative-mul-ℕ (dist-ℕ x y) k) 
  ( ( left-distributive-mul-dist-ℕ x y k) 
    ( ap-dist-ℕ (commutative-mul-ℕ k x) (commutative-mul-ℕ k y)))

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