Retracts of types

Content created by Fredrik Bakke.

Created on 2024-04-17.
Last modified on 2024-04-17.

module foundation-core.retracts-of-types where
open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.function-extensionality
open import foundation.universe-levels
open import foundation.whiskering-homotopies-composition

open import foundation-core.function-types
open import foundation-core.identity-types
open import foundation-core.postcomposition-functions
open import foundation-core.precomposition-functions
open import foundation-core.retractions
open import foundation-core.sections


We say that a type A is a retract of a type B if the types A and B come equipped with retract data, i.e., with maps

      i        r
  A -----> B -----> A

such that r is a retraction of i, i.e., there is a homotopy r ∘ i ~ id. The map i is called the inclusion of the retract data, and the map r is called the underlying map of the retraction.


The type of witnesses that A is a retract of B

The predicate retract B is used to assert that a type is a retract of B, i.e., the type retract B A is the type of maps from A to B that come equipped with a retraction.

We also introduce more intuitive infix notation A retract-of B to assert that A is a retract of B.

retract : {l1 l2 : Level}  UU l1  UU l2  UU (l1  l2)
retract B A = Σ (A  B) (retraction)

infix 6 _retract-of_

_retract-of_ :
  {l1 l2 : Level}  UU l1  UU l2  UU (l1  l2)
A retract-of B = retract B A

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} (R : retract B A)

  inclusion-retract : A  B
  inclusion-retract = pr1 R

  retraction-retract : retraction inclusion-retract
  retraction-retract = pr2 R

  map-retraction-retract : B  A
  map-retraction-retract = map-retraction inclusion-retract retraction-retract

  is-retraction-map-retraction-retract :
    is-section map-retraction-retract inclusion-retract
  is-retraction-map-retraction-retract =
    is-retraction-map-retraction inclusion-retract retraction-retract

  section-retract : section map-retraction-retract
  pr1 section-retract = inclusion-retract
  pr2 section-retract = is-retraction-map-retraction-retract

The type of retracts of a type

retracts : {l1 : Level} (l2 : Level) (A : UU l1)  UU (l1  lsuc l2)
retracts l2 A = Σ (UU l2) (_retract-of A)

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} (R : retracts l2 A)

  type-retracts : UU l2
  type-retracts = pr1 R

  retract-retracts : type-retracts retract-of A
  retract-retracts = pr2 R

  inclusion-retracts : type-retracts  A
  inclusion-retracts = inclusion-retract retract-retracts

  retraction-retracts : retraction inclusion-retracts
  retraction-retracts = retraction-retract retract-retracts

  map-retraction-retracts : A  type-retracts
  map-retraction-retracts = map-retraction-retract retract-retracts

  is-retraction-map-retraction-retracts :
    is-section map-retraction-retracts inclusion-retracts
  is-retraction-map-retraction-retracts =
    is-retraction-map-retraction-retract retract-retracts

  section-retracts : section map-retraction-retracts
  section-retracts = section-retract retract-retracts


If A is a retract of B with inclusion i : A → B, then x = y is a retract of i x = i y for any two elements x y : A

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} (R : A retract-of B) (x y : A)

  retract-eq :
    (x  y) retract-of (inclusion-retract R x  inclusion-retract R y)
  pr1 retract-eq = ap (inclusion-retract R)
  pr2 retract-eq = retraction-ap (inclusion-retract R) (retraction-retract R)

If A is a retract of B then A → S is a retract of B → S via precomposition

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} (R : A retract-of B) (S : UU l3)

  retract-precomp :
    (A  S) retract-of (B  S)
  pr1 retract-precomp =
    precomp (map-retraction-retract R) S
  pr1 (pr2 retract-precomp) =
    precomp (inclusion-retract R) S
  pr2 (pr2 retract-precomp) h =
    eq-htpy (h ·l is-retraction-map-retraction-retract R)

If A is a retract of B then S → A is a retract of S → B via postcomposition

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} (S : UU l3) (R : A retract-of B)

  retract-postcomp :
    (S  A) retract-of (S  B)
  pr1 retract-postcomp =
    postcomp S (inclusion-retract R)
  pr1 (pr2 retract-postcomp) =
    postcomp S (map-retraction-retract R)
  pr2 (pr2 retract-postcomp) h =
    eq-htpy (is-retraction-map-retraction-retract R ·r h)

Composition of retracts

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : UU l3}

  comp-retract : B retract-of C  A retract-of B  A retract-of C
  pr1 (comp-retract r r') =
    inclusion-retract r  inclusion-retract r'
  pr2 (comp-retract r r') =
      ( inclusion-retract r)
      ( inclusion-retract r')
      ( retraction-retract r)
      ( retraction-retract r')

See also

Recent changes