Embeddings

Content created by Egbert Rijke, Fredrik Bakke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides, Elisabeth Stenholm, Eléonore Mangel, Daniel Gratzer, Tom de Jong and Victor Blanchi.

Created on 2022-01-26.
Last modified on 2024-02-19.

module foundation.embeddings where

open import foundation-core.embeddings public
Imports
open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.cones-over-cospan-diagrams
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.equivalences
open import foundation.functoriality-cartesian-product-types
open import foundation.functoriality-dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.fundamental-theorem-of-identity-types
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.transport-along-identifications
open import foundation.truncated-maps
open import foundation.universe-levels

open import foundation-core.cartesian-product-types
open import foundation-core.commuting-squares-of-maps
open import foundation-core.commuting-triangles-of-maps
open import foundation-core.contractible-types
open import foundation-core.fibers-of-maps
open import foundation-core.function-types
open import foundation-core.homotopies
open import foundation-core.propositional-maps
open import foundation-core.propositions
open import foundation-core.pullbacks
open import foundation-core.retractions
open import foundation-core.sections
open import foundation-core.truncation-levels

Properties

Being an embedding is a property

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2}
  where

  is-property-is-emb : (f : A  B)  is-prop (is-emb f)
  is-property-is-emb f =
    is-prop-Π  x  is-prop-Π  y  is-property-is-equiv (ap f)))

  is-emb-Prop : (A  B)  Prop (l1  l2)
  pr1 (is-emb-Prop f) = is-emb f
  pr2 (is-emb-Prop f) = is-property-is-emb f

Embeddings are closed under homotopies

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2}
  where

  abstract
    is-emb-htpy : {f g : A  B} (H : f ~ g)  is-emb g  is-emb f
    is-emb-htpy {f} {g} H is-emb-g x y =
      is-equiv-top-is-equiv-left-square
        ( ap g)
        ( concat' (f x) (H y))
        ( ap f)
        ( concat (H x) (g y))
        ( nat-htpy H)
        ( is-equiv-concat (H x) (g y))
        ( is-emb-g x y)
        ( is-equiv-concat' (f x) (H y))

  is-emb-htpy-emb : {f : A  B} (e : A  B)  f ~ map-emb e  is-emb f
  is-emb-htpy-emb e H = is-emb-htpy H (is-emb-map-emb e)

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2}
  where

  abstract
    is-emb-htpy' : {f g : A  B} (H : f ~ g)  is-emb f  is-emb g
    is-emb-htpy' H is-emb-f = is-emb-htpy (inv-htpy H) is-emb-f

  is-emb-htpy-emb' : (e : A  B) {g : A  B}  map-emb e ~ g  is-emb g
  is-emb-htpy-emb' e H = is-emb-htpy' H (is-emb-map-emb e)

Any map between propositions is an embedding

is-emb-is-prop :
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {f : A  B} 
  is-prop A  is-prop B  is-emb f
is-emb-is-prop H K =
  is-emb-is-prop-map (is-trunc-map-is-trunc-domain-codomain neg-one-𝕋 H K)

Embeddings are closed under composition

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : UU l3}
  where

  is-emb-comp :
    (g : B  C) (h : A  B)  is-emb g  is-emb h  is-emb (g  h)
  is-emb-comp g h is-emb-g is-emb-h x y =
    is-equiv-left-map-triangle
      ( ap (g  h))
      ( ap g)
      ( ap h)
      ( ap-comp g h)
      ( is-emb-h x y)
      ( is-emb-g (h x) (h y))

  abstract
    is-emb-left-map-triangle :
      (f : A  C) (g : B  C) (h : A  B) (H : coherence-triangle-maps f g h) 
      is-emb g  is-emb h  is-emb f
    is-emb-left-map-triangle f g h H is-emb-g is-emb-h =
      is-emb-htpy H (is-emb-comp g h is-emb-g is-emb-h)

  comp-emb :
    (B  C)  (A  B)  (A  C)
  pr1 (comp-emb (g , H) (f , K)) = g  f
  pr2 (comp-emb (g , H) (f , K)) = is-emb-comp g f H K

The right factor of a composed embedding is an embedding

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : UU l3}
  where

  is-emb-right-factor :
    (g : B  C) (h : A  B) 
    is-emb g  is-emb (g  h)  is-emb h
  is-emb-right-factor g h is-emb-g is-emb-gh x y =
    is-equiv-top-map-triangle
      ( ap (g  h))
      ( ap g)
      ( ap h)
      ( ap-comp g h)
      ( is-emb-g (h x) (h y))
      ( is-emb-gh x y)

  abstract
    is-emb-top-map-triangle :
      (f : A  C) (g : B  C) (h : A  B) (H : coherence-triangle-maps f g h) 
      is-emb g  is-emb f  is-emb h
    is-emb-top-map-triangle f g h H is-emb-g is-emb-f x y =
      is-equiv-top-map-triangle
        ( ap (g  h))
        ( ap g)
        ( ap h)
        ( ap-comp g h)
        ( is-emb-g (h x) (h y))
        ( is-emb-htpy (inv-htpy H) is-emb-f x y)

  abstract
    is-emb-triangle-is-equiv :
      (f : A  C) (g : B  C) (e : A  B) (H : coherence-triangle-maps f g e) 
      is-equiv e  is-emb g  is-emb f
    is-emb-triangle-is-equiv f g e H is-equiv-e is-emb-g =
      is-emb-left-map-triangle f g e H is-emb-g (is-emb-is-equiv is-equiv-e)

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : UU l3}
  where

  abstract
    is-emb-triangle-is-equiv' :
      (f : A  C) (g : B  C) (e : A  B) (H : coherence-triangle-maps f g e) 
      is-equiv e  is-emb f  is-emb g
    is-emb-triangle-is-equiv' f g e H is-equiv-e is-emb-f =
      is-emb-triangle-is-equiv g f
        ( map-inv-is-equiv is-equiv-e)
        ( triangle-section f g e H
          ( pair
            ( map-inv-is-equiv is-equiv-e)
            ( is-section-map-inv-is-equiv is-equiv-e)))
        ( is-equiv-map-inv-is-equiv is-equiv-e)
        ( is-emb-f)

The map on total spaces induced by a family of embeddings is an embedding

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : A  UU l2} {C : A  UU l3}
  where

  is-emb-tot :
    {f : (x : A)  B x  C x}  ((x : A)  is-emb (f x))  is-emb (tot f)
  is-emb-tot H =
    is-emb-is-prop-map (is-prop-map-tot  x  is-prop-map-is-emb (H x)))

  emb-tot : ((x : A)  B x  C x)  Σ A B  Σ A C
  pr1 (emb-tot f) = tot  x  map-emb (f x))
  pr2 (emb-tot f) = is-emb-tot  x  is-emb-map-emb (f x))

The functoriality of dependent pair types preserves embeddings

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2}
  where

  abstract
    is-emb-map-Σ-map-base :
      {f : A  B} (C : B  UU l3)  is-emb f  is-emb (map-Σ-map-base f C)
    is-emb-map-Σ-map-base C H =
      is-emb-is-prop-map (is-prop-map-map-Σ-map-base C (is-prop-map-is-emb H))

  emb-Σ-emb-base :
    (f : A  B) (C : B  UU l3)  Σ A  a  C (map-emb f a))  Σ B C
  pr1 (emb-Σ-emb-base f C) = map-Σ-map-base (map-emb f) C
  pr2 (emb-Σ-emb-base f C) =
    is-emb-map-Σ-map-base C (is-emb-map-emb f)

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 l4 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : A  UU l3}
  where

  is-emb-map-Σ :
    (D : B  UU l4) {f : A  B} {g : (x : A)  C x  D (f x)} 
    is-emb f  ((x : A)  is-emb (g x))  is-emb (map-Σ D f g)
  is-emb-map-Σ D H K =
    is-emb-is-prop-map
      ( is-prop-map-map-Σ D
        ( is-prop-map-is-emb H)
        ( λ x  is-prop-map-is-emb (K x)))

  emb-Σ :
    (D : B  UU l4) (f : A  B) (g : (x : A)  C x  D (map-emb f x)) 
    Σ A C  Σ B D
  pr1 (emb-Σ D f g) = map-Σ D (map-emb f)  x  map-emb (g x))
  pr2 (emb-Σ D f g) =
    is-emb-map-Σ D (is-emb-map-emb f)  x  is-emb-map-emb (g x))

Equivalence on total spaces induced by embedding on the base types

We saw above that given an embedding f : A ↪ B and a type family C over B we obtain an embedding

  Σ A (C ∘ f) ↪ Σ B C.

This embedding can be upgraded to an equivalence if we furthermore know that the support of C is contained in the image of f. More precisely, if we are given a section ((b , c) : Σ B C) → fiber f b, then it follows that

  Σ A (C ∘ f) ≃ Σ B C.
module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : B  UU l3} (f : A  B)
  (H : ((b , c) : Σ B C)  fiber (map-emb f) b)
  where

  inv-map-Σ-emb-base : Σ B C  Σ A (C  map-emb f)
  pr1 (inv-map-Σ-emb-base u) = pr1 (H u)
  pr2 (inv-map-Σ-emb-base u) = inv-tr C (pr2 (H u)) (pr2 u)

  is-section-inv-map-Σ-emb-base :
    is-section (map-Σ-map-base (map-emb f) C) inv-map-Σ-emb-base
  is-section-inv-map-Σ-emb-base (b , c) =
    ap
      ( λ s  (pr1 s , inv-tr C (pr2 s) c))
      ( eq-is-contr (is-torsorial-Id' b))

  is-retraction-inv-map-Σ-emb-base :
    is-retraction (map-Σ-map-base (map-emb f) C) inv-map-Σ-emb-base
  is-retraction-inv-map-Σ-emb-base (a , c) =
    ap
      ( λ s  (pr1 s , inv-tr C (pr2 s) c))
      ( eq-is-prop (is-prop-map-is-emb (pr2 f) (map-emb f a)))

  equiv-Σ-emb-base : Σ A (C  map-emb f)  Σ B C
  pr1 equiv-Σ-emb-base = map-Σ-map-base (map-emb f) C
  pr2 equiv-Σ-emb-base =
    is-equiv-is-invertible
      inv-map-Σ-emb-base
      is-section-inv-map-Σ-emb-base
      is-retraction-inv-map-Σ-emb-base

The product of two embeddings is an embedding

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 l4 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : UU l3} {D : UU l4}
  where

  emb-product : (A  C)  (B  D)  ((A × B)  (C × D))
  emb-product f g = emb-Σ  _  D) f  _  g)

  is-emb-map-product :
    (f : A  C) (g : B  D)  is-emb f  is-emb g  (is-emb (map-product f g))
  is-emb-map-product f g is-emb-f is-emb-g =
    is-emb-map-emb (emb-product (f , is-emb-f) (g , is-emb-g))

If the action on identifications has a section, then f is an embedding

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} (f : A  B)
  where

  abstract
    is-emb-section-ap :
      ((x y : A)  section (ap f {x} {y}))  is-emb f
    is-emb-section-ap section-ap-f x =
      fundamental-theorem-id-section x  y  ap f) (section-ap-f x)

If there is an equivalence (f x = f y) ≃ (x = y) that sends refl to refl, then f is an embedding

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} (f : A  B)
  where

  abstract
    is-emb-equiv-refl-to-refl :
      (e : (x y : A)  (f x  f y)  (x  y)) 
      ((x : A)  map-equiv (e x x) refl  refl) 
      is-emb f
    is-emb-equiv-refl-to-refl e p x y =
      is-equiv-htpy-equiv
        ( inv-equiv (e x y))
        ( λ where
          refl 
            inv (is-retraction-map-inv-equiv (e x x) refl) 
            ap (map-equiv (inv-equiv (e x x))) (p x))

Embeddings are closed under pullback

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 l4 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : UU l3}
  {X : UU l4} (f : A  X) (g : B  X) (c : cone f g C)
  where

  abstract
    is-emb-vertical-map-cone-is-pullback :
      is-pullback f g c  is-emb g  is-emb (vertical-map-cone f g c)
    is-emb-vertical-map-cone-is-pullback pb is-emb-g =
      is-emb-is-prop-map
        ( is-trunc-vertical-map-is-pullback neg-one-𝕋 f g c pb
          ( is-prop-map-is-emb is-emb-g))

  abstract
    is-emb-horizontal-map-cone-is-pullback :
      is-pullback f g c  is-emb f  is-emb (horizontal-map-cone f g c)
    is-emb-horizontal-map-cone-is-pullback pb is-emb-f =
      is-emb-is-prop-map
        ( is-trunc-horizontal-map-is-pullback neg-one-𝕋 f g c pb
          ( is-prop-map-is-emb is-emb-f))

In a commuting square of which the sides are embeddings, the top map is an embedding if and only if the bottom map is an embedding

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 l4 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : UU l3} {D : UU l4}
  (top : A  C) (left : A  B) (right : C  D) (bottom : B  D)
  (H : coherence-square-maps top left right bottom)
  where

  is-emb-top-is-emb-bottom-is-equiv-coherence-square-maps :
    is-equiv left  is-equiv right  is-emb bottom  is-emb top
  is-emb-top-is-emb-bottom-is-equiv-coherence-square-maps K L M =
    is-emb-right-factor
      ( right)
      ( top)
      ( is-emb-is-equiv L)
      ( is-emb-htpy'
        ( H)
        ( is-emb-comp bottom left M (is-emb-is-equiv K)))

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 l4 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} {C : UU l3} {D : UU l4}
  (top : A  C) (left : A  B) (right : C  D) (bottom : B  D)
  (H : coherence-square-maps top left right bottom)
  where

  is-emb-bottom-is-emb-top-is-equiv-coherence-square-maps :
    is-equiv left  is-equiv right  is-emb top  is-emb bottom
  is-emb-bottom-is-emb-top-is-equiv-coherence-square-maps K L M =
    is-emb-top-is-emb-bottom-is-equiv-coherence-square-maps
      ( bottom)
      ( map-inv-is-equiv K)
      ( map-inv-is-equiv L)
      ( top)
      ( vertical-inv-equiv-coherence-square-maps
        ( top)
        ( left , K)
        ( right , L)
        ( bottom)
        ( H))
      ( is-equiv-map-inv-is-equiv K)
      ( is-equiv-map-inv-is-equiv L)
      ( M)

A map is an embedding if and only if it has contractible fibers at values

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2} (f : A  B)
  where

  is-emb-is-contr-fibers-values' :
    ((a : A)  is-contr (fiber' f (f a)))  is-emb f
  is-emb-is-contr-fibers-values' c a =
    fundamental-theorem-id (c a)  x  ap f {a} {x})

  is-emb-is-contr-fibers-values :
    ((a : A)  is-contr (fiber f (f a)))  is-emb f
  is-emb-is-contr-fibers-values c =
    is-emb-is-contr-fibers-values'
      ( λ a 
        is-contr-equiv'
          ( fiber f (f a))
          ( equiv-fiber f (f a))
          ( c a))

  is-contr-fibers-values-is-emb' :
    is-emb f  ((a : A)  is-contr (fiber' f (f a)))
  is-contr-fibers-values-is-emb' e a =
    fundamental-theorem-id'  x  ap f {a} {x}) (e a)

  is-contr-fibers-values-is-emb :
    is-emb f  ((a : A)  is-contr (fiber f (f a)))
  is-contr-fibers-values-is-emb e a =
    is-contr-equiv
      ( fiber' f (f a))
      ( equiv-fiber f (f a))
      ( is-contr-fibers-values-is-emb' e a)

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