Homomorphisms of semigroups

Content created by Egbert Rijke, Fredrik Bakke and Jonathan Prieto-Cubides.

Created on 2022-03-17.
Last modified on 2024-01-11.

module group-theory.homomorphisms-semigroups where
Imports
open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.equivalences
open import foundation.function-types
open import foundation.fundamental-theorem-of-identity-types
open import foundation.homotopies
open import foundation.homotopy-induction
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.propositions
open import foundation.sets
open import foundation.subtype-identity-principle
open import foundation.torsorial-type-families
open import foundation.universe-levels

open import group-theory.semigroups

Idea

A homomorphism between two semigroups is a map between their underlying types that preserves the binary operation.

Definition

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} {A : UU l1} {B : UU l2}
  where

  preserves-mul : (μA : A  A  A) (μB : B  B  B)  (A  B)  UU (l1  l2)
  preserves-mul μA μB f = {x y : A}  f (μA x y)  μB (f x) (f y)

  preserves-mul' : (μA : A  A  A) (μB : B  B  B)  (A  B)  UU (l1  l2)
  preserves-mul' μA μB f = (x y : A)  f (μA x y)  μB (f x) (f y)

module _
  {l1 l2 : Level} (G : Semigroup l1) (H : Semigroup l2)
  where

  preserves-mul-prop-Semigroup :
    (type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup H)  Prop (l1  l2)
  preserves-mul-prop-Semigroup f =
    implicit-Π-Prop
      ( type-Semigroup G)
      ( λ x 
        implicit-Π-Prop
          ( type-Semigroup G)
          ( λ y 
            Id-Prop
              ( set-Semigroup H)
              ( f (mul-Semigroup G x y))
              ( mul-Semigroup H (f x) (f y))))

  preserves-mul-prop-Semigroup' :
    (type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup H)  Prop (l1  l2)
  preserves-mul-prop-Semigroup' f =
    implicit-Π-Prop
      ( type-Semigroup G)
      ( λ x 
        implicit-Π-Prop
          ( type-Semigroup G)
          ( λ y 
            Id-Prop
              ( set-Semigroup H)
              ( f (mul-Semigroup' G x y))
              ( mul-Semigroup H (f x) (f y))))

  preserves-mul-Semigroup :
    (type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup H)  UU (l1  l2)
  preserves-mul-Semigroup f =
    type-Prop (preserves-mul-prop-Semigroup f)

  preserves-mul-Semigroup' :
    (type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup H)  UU (l1  l2)
  preserves-mul-Semigroup' f =
    type-Prop (preserves-mul-prop-Semigroup' f)

  is-prop-preserves-mul-Semigroup :
    (f : type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup H) 
    is-prop (preserves-mul-Semigroup f)
  is-prop-preserves-mul-Semigroup f =
    is-prop-type-Prop (preserves-mul-prop-Semigroup f)

  is-prop-preserves-mul-Semigroup' :
    (f : type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup H) 
    is-prop (preserves-mul-Semigroup' f)
  is-prop-preserves-mul-Semigroup' f =
    is-prop-type-Prop (preserves-mul-prop-Semigroup' f)

  hom-Semigroup : UU (l1  l2)
  hom-Semigroup =
    Σ ( type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup H)
      ( preserves-mul-Semigroup)

  map-hom-Semigroup :
    hom-Semigroup  type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup H
  map-hom-Semigroup f = pr1 f

  preserves-mul-hom-Semigroup :
    (f : hom-Semigroup)  preserves-mul-Semigroup (map-hom-Semigroup f)
  preserves-mul-hom-Semigroup f = pr2 f

Characterizing the identity type of semigroup homomorphisms

  htpy-hom-Semigroup : (f g : hom-Semigroup)  UU (l1  l2)
  htpy-hom-Semigroup f g = map-hom-Semigroup f ~ map-hom-Semigroup g

  refl-htpy-hom-Semigroup : (f : hom-Semigroup)  htpy-hom-Semigroup f f
  refl-htpy-hom-Semigroup f = refl-htpy

  htpy-eq-hom-Semigroup :
    (f g : hom-Semigroup)  Id f g  htpy-hom-Semigroup f g
  htpy-eq-hom-Semigroup f .f refl = refl-htpy-hom-Semigroup f

  abstract
    is-torsorial-htpy-hom-Semigroup :
      (f : hom-Semigroup)  is-torsorial (htpy-hom-Semigroup f)
    is-torsorial-htpy-hom-Semigroup f =
      is-torsorial-Eq-subtype
        ( is-torsorial-htpy (map-hom-Semigroup f))
        ( is-prop-preserves-mul-Semigroup)
        ( map-hom-Semigroup f)
        ( refl-htpy)
        ( preserves-mul-hom-Semigroup f)

  abstract
    is-equiv-htpy-eq-hom-Semigroup :
      (f g : hom-Semigroup)  is-equiv (htpy-eq-hom-Semigroup f g)
    is-equiv-htpy-eq-hom-Semigroup f =
      fundamental-theorem-id
        ( is-torsorial-htpy-hom-Semigroup f)
        ( htpy-eq-hom-Semigroup f)

  eq-htpy-hom-Semigroup :
    {f g : hom-Semigroup}  htpy-hom-Semigroup f g  Id f g
  eq-htpy-hom-Semigroup {f} {g} =
    map-inv-is-equiv (is-equiv-htpy-eq-hom-Semigroup f g)

  is-set-hom-Semigroup : is-set hom-Semigroup
  is-set-hom-Semigroup f g =
    is-prop-is-equiv
      ( is-equiv-htpy-eq-hom-Semigroup f g)
      ( is-prop-Π
        ( λ x 
          is-set-type-Semigroup H
            ( map-hom-Semigroup f x)
            ( map-hom-Semigroup g x)))

  hom-set-Semigroup : Set (l1  l2)
  pr1 hom-set-Semigroup = hom-Semigroup
  pr2 hom-set-Semigroup = is-set-hom-Semigroup

preserves-mul-id-Semigroup :
  {l : Level} (G : Semigroup l)  preserves-mul-Semigroup G G id
preserves-mul-id-Semigroup G = refl

The identity homomorphism of semigroups

id-hom-Semigroup :
  {l : Level} (G : Semigroup l)  hom-Semigroup G G
pr1 (id-hom-Semigroup G) = id
pr2 (id-hom-Semigroup G) = preserves-mul-id-Semigroup G

Composition of morphisms of semigroups

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level}
  (G : Semigroup l1) (H : Semigroup l2) (K : Semigroup l3)
  (g : hom-Semigroup H K) (f : hom-Semigroup G H)
  where

  map-comp-hom-Semigroup : type-Semigroup G  type-Semigroup K
  map-comp-hom-Semigroup =
    (map-hom-Semigroup H K g)  (map-hom-Semigroup G H f)

  preserves-mul-comp-hom-Semigroup :
    preserves-mul-Semigroup G K map-comp-hom-Semigroup
  preserves-mul-comp-hom-Semigroup =
    ( ap
      ( map-hom-Semigroup H K g)
      ( preserves-mul-hom-Semigroup G H f)) 
    ( preserves-mul-hom-Semigroup H K g)

  comp-hom-Semigroup : hom-Semigroup G K
  pr1 comp-hom-Semigroup = map-comp-hom-Semigroup
  pr2 comp-hom-Semigroup = preserves-mul-comp-hom-Semigroup

Associativity of composition of homomorphisms of semigroups

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 l4 : Level}
  (G : Semigroup l1) (H : Semigroup l2) (K : Semigroup l3) (L : Semigroup l4)
  (h : hom-Semigroup K L) (g : hom-Semigroup H K) (f : hom-Semigroup G H)
  where

  associative-comp-hom-Semigroup :
    comp-hom-Semigroup G H L (comp-hom-Semigroup H K L h g) f 
    comp-hom-Semigroup G K L h (comp-hom-Semigroup G H K g f)
  associative-comp-hom-Semigroup = eq-htpy-hom-Semigroup G L refl-htpy

  inv-associative-comp-hom-Semigroup :
    comp-hom-Semigroup G K L h (comp-hom-Semigroup G H K g f) 
    comp-hom-Semigroup G H L (comp-hom-Semigroup H K L h g) f
  inv-associative-comp-hom-Semigroup = eq-htpy-hom-Semigroup G L refl-htpy

The left and right unit laws for composition of homomorphisms of semigroups

left-unit-law-comp-hom-Semigroup :
  { l1 l2 : Level} (G : Semigroup l1) (H : Semigroup l2)
  ( f : hom-Semigroup G H) 
  Id ( comp-hom-Semigroup G H H (id-hom-Semigroup H) f) f
left-unit-law-comp-hom-Semigroup G
  (pair (pair H is-set-H) (pair μ-H associative-H)) (pair f μ-f) =
  eq-htpy-hom-Semigroup G
    ( pair (pair H is-set-H) (pair μ-H associative-H))
    ( refl-htpy)

right-unit-law-comp-hom-Semigroup :
  { l1 l2 : Level} (G : Semigroup l1) (H : Semigroup l2)
  ( f : hom-Semigroup G H) 
  Id ( comp-hom-Semigroup G G H f (id-hom-Semigroup G)) f
right-unit-law-comp-hom-Semigroup
  (pair (pair G is-set-G) (pair μ-G associative-G)) H (pair f μ-f) =
  eq-htpy-hom-Semigroup
    ( pair (pair G is-set-G) (pair μ-G associative-G)) H refl-htpy

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