Partitions of finite types

Content created by Egbert Rijke, Fredrik Bakke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides, Elisabeth Stenholm, Julian KG, Victor Blanchi, fernabnor and louismntnu.

Created on 2022-06-20.
Last modified on 2024-02-06.

module univalent-combinatorics.partitions where
open import elementary-number-theory.natural-numbers

open import foundation.binary-relations
open import foundation.cartesian-product-types
open import foundation.equality-cartesian-product-types
open import foundation.equivalence-extensionality
open import foundation.equivalence-relations
open import foundation.equivalences
open import foundation.function-types
open import foundation.functoriality-dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.homotopies
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.propositional-truncations
open import foundation.propositions
open import foundation.sets
open import foundation.structure-identity-principle
open import foundation.type-arithmetic-cartesian-product-types
open import foundation.universe-levels

open import univalent-combinatorics.dependent-pair-types
open import univalent-combinatorics.finite-types


A partition of a finite type X can be defined in several equivalent ways:

  • A partition is a subset P of the powerset of X such that each U ⊆ X in P is inhabited and each element x : X is in exactly one subset U ⊆ X in P.
  • A partition is an equivalence relation on X
  • A partition is a decomposition of X into a type of the form Σ A B where A is finite and B is a family of inhabited finite types, i.e., it consists of such A and B and an equivalence X ≃ Σ A B.

Note that the last description is subtly different from the notion of unlabeled partition (i.e., Ferrers diagram), because it only uses mere equivalences.



partition-𝔽 : {l1 : Level} (l2 l3 : Level)  𝔽 l1  UU (l1  lsuc l2  lsuc l3)
partition-𝔽 l2 l3 X =
  Σ ( 𝔽 l2)
    ( λ Y 
      Σ ( type-𝔽 Y  𝔽 l3)
        ( λ Z 
          ( (y : type-𝔽 Y)  type-trunc-Prop (type-𝔽 (Z y))) ×
          ( equiv-𝔽 X (Σ-𝔽 Y Z))))

module _
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} (X : 𝔽 l1) (P : partition-𝔽 l2 l3 X)

  finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽 : 𝔽 l2
  finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽 = pr1 P

  indexing-type-partition-𝔽 : UU l2
  indexing-type-partition-𝔽 = type-𝔽 finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽

  is-finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽 : is-finite indexing-type-partition-𝔽
  is-finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽 =
    is-finite-type-𝔽 finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽

  number-of-elements-indexing-type-partition-𝔽 : 
  number-of-elements-indexing-type-partition-𝔽 =
    number-of-elements-is-finite is-finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽

  finite-block-partition-𝔽 : indexing-type-partition-𝔽  𝔽 l3
  finite-block-partition-𝔽 = pr1 (pr2 P)

  block-partition-𝔽 : indexing-type-partition-𝔽  UU l3
  block-partition-𝔽 i = type-𝔽 (finite-block-partition-𝔽 i)

  is-finite-block-partition-𝔽 :
    (i : indexing-type-partition-𝔽)  is-finite (block-partition-𝔽 i)
  is-finite-block-partition-𝔽 i = is-finite-type-𝔽 (finite-block-partition-𝔽 i)

  number-of-elements-block-partition-𝔽 : indexing-type-partition-𝔽  
  number-of-elements-block-partition-𝔽 i =
    number-of-elements-is-finite (is-finite-block-partition-𝔽 i)

  is-inhabited-block-partition-𝔽 :
    (i : indexing-type-partition-𝔽)  type-trunc-Prop (block-partition-𝔽 i)
  is-inhabited-block-partition-𝔽 = pr1 (pr2 (pr2 P))

  conversion-partition-𝔽 :
    equiv-𝔽 X (Σ-𝔽 finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽 finite-block-partition-𝔽)
  conversion-partition-𝔽 = pr2 (pr2 (pr2 P))

  map-conversion-partition-𝔽 :
    type-𝔽 X  Σ indexing-type-partition-𝔽 block-partition-𝔽
  map-conversion-partition-𝔽 = map-equiv conversion-partition-𝔽

  rel-partition-𝔽-Prop : type-𝔽 X  type-𝔽 X  Prop l2
  rel-partition-𝔽-Prop x y =
      ( set-𝔽 finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽)
      ( pr1 (map-conversion-partition-𝔽 x))
      ( pr1 (map-conversion-partition-𝔽 y))

  rel-partition-𝔽 : type-𝔽 X  type-𝔽 X  UU l2
  rel-partition-𝔽 x y = type-Prop (rel-partition-𝔽-Prop x y)

  is-prop-rel-partition-𝔽 : (x y : type-𝔽 X)  is-prop (rel-partition-𝔽 x y)
  is-prop-rel-partition-𝔽 x y = is-prop-type-Prop (rel-partition-𝔽-Prop x y)

  refl-rel-partition-𝔽 : is-reflexive rel-partition-𝔽
  refl-rel-partition-𝔽 x = refl

  symmetric-rel-partition-𝔽 : is-symmetric rel-partition-𝔽
  symmetric-rel-partition-𝔽 x y = inv

  transitive-rel-partition-𝔽 : is-transitive rel-partition-𝔽
  transitive-rel-partition-𝔽 x y z r s = s  r

  equivalence-relation-partition-𝔽 : equivalence-relation l2 (type-𝔽 X)
  pr1 equivalence-relation-partition-𝔽 = rel-partition-𝔽-Prop
  pr1 (pr2 equivalence-relation-partition-𝔽) = refl-rel-partition-𝔽
  pr1 (pr2 (pr2 equivalence-relation-partition-𝔽)) = symmetric-rel-partition-𝔽
  pr2 (pr2 (pr2 equivalence-relation-partition-𝔽)) = transitive-rel-partition-𝔽

Equivalences of partitions

equiv-partition-𝔽 :
  {l1 l2 l3 l4 l5 : Level} (X : 𝔽 l1) 
  partition-𝔽 l2 l3 X  partition-𝔽 l4 l5 X  UU (l1  l2  l3  l4  l5)
equiv-partition-𝔽 X P Q =
  Σ ( indexing-type-partition-𝔽 X P  indexing-type-partition-𝔽 X Q)
    ( λ e 
      Σ ( (i : indexing-type-partition-𝔽 X P) 
          block-partition-𝔽 X P i  block-partition-𝔽 X Q (map-equiv e i))
        ( λ f 
            ( ( equiv-Σ (block-partition-𝔽 X Q) e f) ∘e
              ( conversion-partition-𝔽 X P))
            ( conversion-partition-𝔽 X Q)))

id-equiv-partition-𝔽 :
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} (X : 𝔽 l1)
  (P : partition-𝔽 l2 l3 X)  equiv-partition-𝔽 X P P
pr1 (id-equiv-partition-𝔽 X P) = id-equiv
pr1 (pr2 (id-equiv-partition-𝔽 X P)) i = id-equiv
pr2 (pr2 (id-equiv-partition-𝔽 X P)) = refl-htpy

extensionality-partition-𝔽 :
  {l1 l2 l3 : Level} (X : 𝔽 l1) (P Q : partition-𝔽 l2 l3 X) 
  Id P Q  equiv-partition-𝔽 X P Q
extensionality-partition-𝔽 X P =
    ( λ {Y} Zf e 
      Σ ( (i : indexing-type-partition-𝔽 X P) 
          block-partition-𝔽 X P i  type-𝔽 (pr1 Zf (map-equiv e i)))
        ( λ f 
            ( equiv-Σ (type-𝔽  pr1 Zf) e f ∘e conversion-partition-𝔽 X P)
            ( pr2 (pr2 Zf))))
    ( id-equiv)
    ( pair  i  id-equiv) refl-htpy)
    ( extensionality-𝔽 (finite-indexing-type-partition-𝔽 X P))
    ( extensionality-Σ
      ( λ {Z} f α 
          ( equiv-Σ (type-𝔽  Z) id-equiv α ∘e conversion-partition-𝔽 X P)
          ( pr2 f))
      ( λ i  id-equiv)
      ( refl-htpy)
      ( extensionality-fam-𝔽 (finite-block-partition-𝔽 X P))
      ( λ α 
        ( ( extensionality-equiv (conversion-partition-𝔽 X P) (pr2 α)) ∘e
          ( left-unit-law-product-is-contr
            ( is-prop-Π
              ( λ _  is-prop-type-trunc-Prop)
              ( is-inhabited-block-partition-𝔽 X P)
              ( pr1 α)))) ∘e
        ( equiv-pair-eq (pr2 (pr2 P)) α)))


The type of finite partitions of a finite type X is equivalent to the type of decidable partitions of X in the usual sense

This remains to be shown. #747

The type of finite partitions of a finite type X is equivalent to the type of equivalence relations on X

This remains to be shown. #747

The type of finite partitions of a finite type is finite

This remains to be shown. #747

The number of elements of the type of finite partitions of a finite type is a Stirling number of the second kind

This remains to be shown. #747

The type of finite partitions of a contractible type is contractible

This remains to be shown. #747

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