The booleans

Content created by Egbert Rijke, Fredrik Bakke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides, Elisabeth Stenholm and Daniel Gratzer.

Created on 2022-01-27.
Last modified on 2024-04-11.

module foundation.booleans where
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.involutions
open import foundation.negated-equality
open import foundation.raising-universe-levels
open import foundation.unit-type
open import foundation.universe-levels

open import foundation-core.constant-maps
open import foundation-core.coproduct-types
open import foundation-core.empty-types
open import foundation-core.equivalences
open import foundation-core.function-types
open import foundation-core.homotopies
open import foundation-core.identity-types
open import foundation-core.injective-maps
open import foundation-core.negation
open import foundation-core.propositions
open import foundation-core.sections
open import foundation-core.sets

open import univalent-combinatorics.finite-types
open import univalent-combinatorics.standard-finite-types


The type of booleans is a 2-element type with elements true false : bool, which is used for reasoning with decidable propositions.


The booleans

data bool : UU lzero where
  true false : bool

{-# BUILTIN BOOL bool #-}
{-# BUILTIN TRUE true #-}
{-# BUILTIN FALSE false #-}

The induction principle of the booleans

module _
  {l : Level} (P : bool  UU l)

  ind-bool : P true  P false  (b : bool)  P b
  ind-bool pt pf true = pt
  ind-bool pt pf false = pf

The if_then_else function

module _
  {l : Level} {A : UU l}

  if_then_else_ : bool  A  A  A
  if true then x else y = x
  if false then x else y = y

Raising universe levels of the booleans

raise-bool : (l : Level)  UU l
raise-bool l = raise l bool

raise-true : (l : Level)  raise-bool l
raise-true l = map-raise true

raise-false : (l : Level)  raise-bool l
raise-false l = map-raise false

compute-raise-bool : (l : Level)  bool  raise-bool l
compute-raise-bool l = compute-raise l bool

The standard propositions associated to the constructors of bool

prop-bool : bool  Prop lzero
prop-bool true = unit-Prop
prop-bool false = empty-Prop

type-prop-bool : bool  UU lzero
type-prop-bool = type-Prop  prop-bool

Equality on the booleans

Eq-bool : bool  bool  UU lzero
Eq-bool true true = unit
Eq-bool true false = empty
Eq-bool false true = empty
Eq-bool false false = unit

refl-Eq-bool : (x : bool)  Eq-bool x x
refl-Eq-bool true = star
refl-Eq-bool false = star

Eq-eq-bool :
  {x y : bool}  x  y  Eq-bool x y
Eq-eq-bool {x = x} refl = refl-Eq-bool x

eq-Eq-bool :
  {x y : bool}  Eq-bool x y  x  y
eq-Eq-bool {true} {true} star = refl
eq-Eq-bool {false} {false} star = refl

neq-false-true-bool : false  true
neq-false-true-bool ()

neq-true-false-bool : true  false
neq-true-false-bool ()


The boolean operators

neg-bool : bool  bool
neg-bool true = false
neg-bool false = true

conjunction-bool : bool  bool  bool
conjunction-bool true true = true
conjunction-bool true false = false
conjunction-bool false true = false
conjunction-bool false false = false

disjunction-bool : bool  bool  bool
disjunction-bool true true = true
disjunction-bool true false = true
disjunction-bool false true = true
disjunction-bool false false = false

implication-bool : bool  bool  bool
implication-bool true true = true
implication-bool true false = false
implication-bool false true = true
implication-bool false false = true


The booleans are a set

  is-prop-Eq-bool : (x y : bool)  is-prop (Eq-bool x y)
  is-prop-Eq-bool true true = is-prop-unit
  is-prop-Eq-bool true false = is-prop-empty
  is-prop-Eq-bool false true = is-prop-empty
  is-prop-Eq-bool false false = is-prop-unit

  is-set-bool : is-set bool
  is-set-bool =
      ( Eq-bool)
      ( is-prop-Eq-bool)
      ( refl-Eq-bool)
      ( λ x y  eq-Eq-bool)

bool-Set : Set lzero
pr1 bool-Set = bool
pr2 bool-Set = is-set-bool

The type of booleans is equivalent to Fin 2

bool-Fin-two-ℕ : Fin 2  bool
bool-Fin-two-ℕ (inl (inr star)) = true
bool-Fin-two-ℕ (inr star) = false

Fin-two-ℕ-bool : bool  Fin 2
Fin-two-ℕ-bool true = inl (inr star)
Fin-two-ℕ-bool false = inr star

  is-retraction-Fin-two-ℕ-bool : Fin-two-ℕ-bool  bool-Fin-two-ℕ ~ id
  is-retraction-Fin-two-ℕ-bool (inl (inr star)) = refl
  is-retraction-Fin-two-ℕ-bool (inr star) = refl

  is-section-Fin-two-ℕ-bool : bool-Fin-two-ℕ  Fin-two-ℕ-bool ~ id
  is-section-Fin-two-ℕ-bool true = refl
  is-section-Fin-two-ℕ-bool false = refl

equiv-bool-Fin-two-ℕ : Fin 2  bool
pr1 equiv-bool-Fin-two-ℕ = bool-Fin-two-ℕ
pr2 equiv-bool-Fin-two-ℕ =
    ( Fin-two-ℕ-bool)
    ( is-section-Fin-two-ℕ-bool)
    ( is-retraction-Fin-two-ℕ-bool)

The type of booleans is finite

is-finite-bool : is-finite bool
is-finite-bool = is-finite-equiv equiv-bool-Fin-two-ℕ (is-finite-Fin 2)

bool-𝔽 : 𝔽 lzero
pr1 bool-𝔽 = bool
pr2 bool-𝔽 = is-finite-bool

Boolean negation has no fixed points

neq-neg-bool : (b : bool)  b  neg-bool b
neq-neg-bool true ()
neq-neg-bool false ()

Boolean negation is an involution

is-involution-neg-bool : is-involution neg-bool
is-involution-neg-bool true = refl
is-involution-neg-bool false = refl

Boolean negation is an equivalence

  is-equiv-neg-bool : is-equiv neg-bool
  is-equiv-neg-bool = is-equiv-is-involution is-involution-neg-bool

equiv-neg-bool : bool  bool
pr1 equiv-neg-bool = neg-bool
pr2 equiv-neg-bool = is-equiv-neg-bool

The constant function const bool b is not an equivalence

  no-section-const-bool : (b : bool)  ¬ (section (const bool b))
  no-section-const-bool true (g , G) = neq-true-false-bool (G false)
  no-section-const-bool false (g , G) = neq-false-true-bool (G true)

  is-not-equiv-const-bool :
    (b : bool)  ¬ (is-equiv (const bool b))
  is-not-equiv-const-bool b e = no-section-const-bool b (section-is-equiv e)

Recent changes