Content created by Egbert Rijke, Fredrik Bakke and Jonathan Prieto-Cubides.

Created on 2022-06-03.
Last modified on 2024-03-23.

module structured-types.h-spaces where
open import foundation.action-on-identifications-binary-functions
open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.equivalences
open import foundation.evaluation-functions
open import foundation.function-extensionality
open import foundation.function-types
open import foundation.functoriality-dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.identity-types
open import foundation.type-arithmetic-dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.unital-binary-operations
open import foundation.universe-levels
open import foundation.whiskering-identifications-concatenation

open import foundation-core.endomorphisms

open import structured-types.magmas
open import structured-types.noncoherent-h-spaces
open import structured-types.pointed-homotopies
open import structured-types.pointed-maps
open import structured-types.pointed-sections
open import structured-types.pointed-types


A (coherent) H-space is a "wild unital magma", i.e., it is a pointed type equipped with a binary operation for which the base point is a unit, with a coherence law between the left and the right unit laws.


Unital binary operations on pointed types

coherent-unit-laws-mul-Pointed-Type :
  {l : Level} (A : Pointed-Type l)
  (μ : (x y : type-Pointed-Type A)  type-Pointed-Type A)  UU l
coherent-unit-laws-mul-Pointed-Type A μ =
  coherent-unit-laws μ (point-Pointed-Type A)

coherent-unital-mul-Pointed-Type :
  {l : Level}  Pointed-Type l  UU l
coherent-unital-mul-Pointed-Type A =
  Σ ( type-Pointed-Type A  type-Pointed-Type A  type-Pointed-Type A)
    ( coherent-unit-laws-mul-Pointed-Type A)


An H-space consists of a pointed type X and a coherent unital multiplication on X. The entry make-H-Space is provided to break up the construction of an H-space into two components: the construction of its underlying pointed type and the construction of the coherently unital multiplication on this pointed type. Furthermore, this definition suggests that any construction of an H-space should be refactored by first defining its underlying pointed type, then defining its coherently unital multiplication, and finally combining those two constructions using make-H-Space.

H-Space : (l : Level)  UU (lsuc l)
H-Space l =
  Σ ( Pointed-Type l) coherent-unital-mul-Pointed-Type

make-H-Space :
  {l : Level} 
  (X : Pointed-Type l)  coherent-unital-mul-Pointed-Type X  H-Space l
make-H-Space X μ = (X , μ)

{-# INLINE make-H-Space #-}

module _
  {l : Level} (M : H-Space l)

  pointed-type-H-Space : Pointed-Type l
  pointed-type-H-Space = pr1 M

  type-H-Space : UU l
  type-H-Space = type-Pointed-Type pointed-type-H-Space

  unit-H-Space : type-H-Space
  unit-H-Space = point-Pointed-Type pointed-type-H-Space

  coherent-unital-mul-H-Space :
    coherent-unital-mul-Pointed-Type pointed-type-H-Space
  coherent-unital-mul-H-Space = pr2 M

  mul-H-Space :
    type-H-Space  type-H-Space  type-H-Space
  mul-H-Space = pr1 coherent-unital-mul-H-Space

  mul-H-Space' :
    type-H-Space  type-H-Space  type-H-Space
  mul-H-Space' x y = mul-H-Space y x

  ap-mul-H-Space :
    {a b c d : type-H-Space}  Id a b  Id c d 
    Id (mul-H-Space a c) (mul-H-Space b d)
  ap-mul-H-Space p q = ap-binary mul-H-Space p q

  magma-H-Space : Magma l
  pr1 magma-H-Space = type-H-Space
  pr2 magma-H-Space = mul-H-Space

  coherent-unit-laws-mul-H-Space :
    coherent-unit-laws mul-H-Space unit-H-Space
  coherent-unit-laws-mul-H-Space =
    pr2 coherent-unital-mul-H-Space

  left-unit-law-mul-H-Space :
    (x : type-H-Space) 
    Id (mul-H-Space unit-H-Space x) x
  left-unit-law-mul-H-Space =
    pr1 coherent-unit-laws-mul-H-Space

  right-unit-law-mul-H-Space :
    (x : type-H-Space) 
    Id (mul-H-Space x unit-H-Space) x
  right-unit-law-mul-H-Space =
    pr1 (pr2 coherent-unit-laws-mul-H-Space)

  coh-unit-laws-mul-H-Space :
      ( left-unit-law-mul-H-Space unit-H-Space)
      ( right-unit-law-mul-H-Space unit-H-Space)
  coh-unit-laws-mul-H-Space =
    pr2 (pr2 coherent-unit-laws-mul-H-Space)

  unit-laws-mul-H-Space :
    unit-laws mul-H-Space unit-H-Space
  pr1 unit-laws-mul-H-Space = left-unit-law-mul-H-Space
  pr2 unit-laws-mul-H-Space = right-unit-law-mul-H-Space

  is-unital-mul-H-Space : is-unital mul-H-Space
  pr1 is-unital-mul-H-Space = unit-H-Space
  pr2 is-unital-mul-H-Space = unit-laws-mul-H-Space

  is-coherently-unital-mul-H-Space :
    is-coherently-unital mul-H-Space
  pr1 is-coherently-unital-mul-H-Space = unit-H-Space
  pr2 is-coherently-unital-mul-H-Space =


Every noncoherent H-space can be upgraded to a coherent H-space

h-space-Noncoherent-H-Space :
  {l : Level}  Noncoherent-H-Space l  H-Space l
pr1 (h-space-Noncoherent-H-Space A) = pointed-type-Noncoherent-H-Space A
pr1 (pr2 (h-space-Noncoherent-H-Space A)) = mul-Noncoherent-H-Space A
pr2 (pr2 (h-space-Noncoherent-H-Space A)) =
    ( mul-Noncoherent-H-Space A)
    ( unit-laws-mul-Noncoherent-H-Space A)

The type of H-space structures on A is equivalent to the type of sections of ev-point : (A → A) →∗ A

module _
  {l : Level} (A : Pointed-Type l)

  ev-endo-Pointed-Type : endo-Pointed-Type (type-Pointed-Type A) →∗ A
  pr1 ev-endo-Pointed-Type = ev-point-Pointed-Type A
  pr2 ev-endo-Pointed-Type = refl

  pointed-section-ev-point-Pointed-Type : UU l
  pointed-section-ev-point-Pointed-Type =
    pointed-section ev-endo-Pointed-Type

  compute-pointed-section-ev-point-Pointed-Type :
    pointed-section-ev-point-Pointed-Type  coherent-unital-mul-Pointed-Type A
  compute-pointed-section-ev-point-Pointed-Type =
    ( equiv-tot
      ( λ _ 
        equiv-Σ _
          ( equiv-funext)
          ( λ _ 
            equiv-tot  _  inv-equiv (equiv-right-whisker-concat refl))))) ∘e
    ( associative-Σ _ _ _)

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