Unital binary operations

Content created by Fredrik Bakke, Egbert Rijke, Jonathan Prieto-Cubides, Victor Blanchi and favonia.

Created on 2022-06-10.
Last modified on 2024-02-06.

module foundation.unital-binary-operations where

Imports
open import foundation.action-on-identifications-functions
open import foundation.dependent-pair-types
open import foundation.universe-levels
open import foundation.whiskering-homotopies-composition
open import foundation.whiskering-identifications-concatenation

open import foundation-core.cartesian-product-types
open import foundation-core.homotopies
open import foundation-core.identity-types


Idea

A binary operation of type A → A → A is unital if there is a unit of type A that satisfies both the left and right unit laws. Furthermore, a binary operation is coherently unital if the proofs of the left and right unit laws agree on the case where both arguments of the operation are the unit.

Definitions

Unit laws

module _
{l : Level} {A : UU l} (μ : A → A → A) (e : A)
where

left-unit-law : UU l
left-unit-law = (x : A) → μ e x ＝ x

right-unit-law : UU l
right-unit-law = (x : A) → μ x e ＝ x

coh-unit-laws : left-unit-law → right-unit-law → UU l
coh-unit-laws α β = (α e ＝ β e)

unit-laws : UU l
unit-laws = left-unit-law × right-unit-law

coherent-unit-laws : UU l
coherent-unit-laws =
Σ left-unit-law (λ α → Σ right-unit-law (coh-unit-laws α))


Unital binary operations

is-unital : {l : Level} {A : UU l} (μ : A → A → A) → UU l
is-unital {A = A} μ = Σ A (unit-laws μ)


Coherently unital binary operations

is-coherently-unital : {l : Level} {A : UU l} (μ : A → A → A) → UU l
is-coherently-unital {A = A} μ = Σ A (coherent-unit-laws μ)


Properties

The unit laws for an operation μ with unit e can be upgraded to coherent unit laws

module _
{l : Level} {A : UU l} (μ : A → A → A) {e : A}
where

coherent-unit-laws-unit-laws : unit-laws μ e → coherent-unit-laws μ e
pr1 (coherent-unit-laws-unit-laws (pair H K)) = H
pr1 (pr2 (coherent-unit-laws-unit-laws (pair H K))) x =
( inv (ap (μ x) (K e))) ∙ (( ap (μ x) (H e)) ∙ (K x))
pr2 (pr2 (coherent-unit-laws-unit-laws (pair H K))) =
left-transpose-eq-concat
( ap (μ e) (K e))
( H e)
( (ap (μ e) (H e)) ∙ (K e))
( ( inv-nat-htpy-id (H) (K e)) ∙
( right-whisker-concat (coh-htpy-id (H) e) (K e)))

module _
{l : Level} {A : UU l} {μ : A → A → A}
where

is-coherently-unital-is-unital : is-unital μ → is-coherently-unital μ
pr1 (is-coherently-unital-is-unital (pair e H)) = e
pr2 (is-coherently-unital-is-unital (pair e H)) =
coherent-unit-laws-unit-laws μ H