The simplest method, recommended for most users, is to first install Coq, Emacs, and Proof General, and then build and install UniMath.
Coq can be installed using the package manager Homebrew:
brew install coq
Alternatively, you can install Coq in any other standard way; or you can ask UniMath to build its own copy of Coq, which may be useful if your globally installed Coq is a version incompatible with UniMath. If you plan to do this, then you must first install its dependencies, e.g. with the Homebrew command:
brew install bash objective-caml ocaml-num ocaml-findlib camlp5
or, for more customisability, using the “opam” OCaml package manager, according to the detailed instructions in
Emacs may be installed using https://emacsformacosx.com/, http://aquamacs.org, or any other flavour of Emacs you prefer.
The automated sanity checks (for contributions to UniMath) may require a more recent version of bash than the one preinstalled on Mac OS; this can be installed with
brew install bash.
Under Ubuntu or Debian, you may install Coq with the following shell command.
sudo apt-get install coq
(Ubuntu 21.10 provides Coq version 8.12.0.)
Alternatively, if you wish to compile a version of Coq known to work with Unimath, you may install OCaml with the following shell command.
sudo apt-get install build-essential git ocaml ocaml-nox ocaml-native-compilers camlp5 libgtk2.0 libgtksourceview2.0 liblablgtk-extras-ocaml-dev ocaml-findlib libnum-ocaml-dev emacs
Under Arch Linux or Manjaro Linux you may install OCaml and Emacs with the following shell commands.
sudo pacman --sync --needed archlinux-keyring sudo pacman-key --populate archlinux sudo pacman --sync --needed ocaml camlp5 ocaml-findlib ocaml-num sudo pacman -S emacs
You may obtain Proof General from by using the quick installation instructions at http://proofgeneral.inf.ed.ac.uk/ or at https://proofgeneral.github.io/. Your version of emacs determines which version of Proof General you need, roughly, so some experimentation may be required; you may even need the current development version if your emacs is recent.
For those unfamiliar with Emacs,
M-x means “hold Alt, press x”.
C-g means “hold Ctrl, press g”. This cancels any action you have
RET means “press Enter”.
Hence, the first Proof General installation instruction
M-x package-refresh-contents RET
reads “hold Alt, press x; type package-refresh-contents; press Enter”.
Optional: some useful Proof General add-ons are available for installation at https://github.com/cpitclaudel/company-coq/.
To download UniMath, issue the following shell commands.
$ git clone https://github.com/UniMath/UniMath $ cd UniMath
To compile the Coq formalizations (in all the packages), issue the following shell command (in this directory).
Alternatively, if you want to build a specific version of Coq for UniMath (not usually needed, but sometimes useful for compatibility reasons), and you have installed its dependencies as described above, you may issue the following command.
Once this is done, you can start browsing and editing UniMath. Below, we explain how to compile individual packages of UniMath, and how to create HTML documentation.
$ make CategoryTheory
$ make UniMath/CategoryTheory/Categories.vo
Note the extension
*.vo required in the command.
$ make html
The documentation is created in the subdirectory
$ make doc
In this version of the documentation, any proof enclosed within
Defined. is replaced by a button
Clicking on this button unveils (unfolds) the corresponding proof. A
Hide proof button can be used to fold the proof again.
The documentation is created in the subdirectory
(This feature requires the use of the otherwise optional
Proof command of
the Coq vernacular language to indicate the beginning of the proof. Toggling
of proofs requires an internet connection for downloading the
user-contribdirectory of Coq, for use by other developments:
$ make install
The path to that directory from here, by default, is ./sub/coq/user-contrib/.
Emacs (which every UniMath user should become expert with) includes a facility
called “tags” which enables easy navigation between Coq proof files. For
example, you may be examining a proof containing a reference to a symbol such
as “has_homsets”, and you may wonder where the source code of its definition
is. To do that, one positions the cursor on the symbol, presses
accepts (or modifies) the proffered string, and presses return. Emacs then
takes you to the source code of the definition. One may repeat that as often
as desired, and return one level upward in the chain of locations visited with
Another use of the tags file is to search through all the source files for the
occurrence of text matching a given regular expression. For example, you can use
M-x tags-search with the regular expression
^Notation *" *\[ *. *\(, *[[:alpha:]]+ *\)*\]"
to locate the following lines in various files:
Notation "[ C , D , hs ]" := (functor_precategory C D hs) : cat. Notation "[ C , D , hs ]" := (functor_precategory C D hs) : cat. Notation "[ C , D ]" := (functor_category C D) : cat. Notation "[ C , D ]" := (functor_category C D) : cat.
In order to enable this facility, make a “TAGS” file as follows.
To make a TAGS file for use with emacs
$ make TAGS
To make a TAGS file dealing with a single package, for example,
$ make TAGS-Foundations
The first time the tags facility is used, the user will be prompted for the location of a TAGS file to use – it will be in the top-level directory of UniMath.
To obtain information about the compilation time of each file, add
TIMED=yes to the
make command line. For this to work, you need the
time utility installed on your system in
TIMECMD=time to the
make command line, where
time is a
time command that works on your system.
On both Linux and Mac OS X systems,
time is a built in bash shell command
that differs from GNU time, available on Linux systems as
Mac OS X, you can install GNU time as
gtime by running
make variables can be included in the time command, the following
example (using GNU time
gtime) shows how to display the user time and the name of the
file on the same line.
$ time make TIMECMD='gtime -f "user time %U: $*"'
time command provides overall time for the whole build.
Timing of execution of individual tactics and vernacular commands can be obtained by
$ make MOREFLAGS=-time
For postprocessing of the (huge) output, use our utility
slowest, like this:
$ make MOREFLAGS=-time TIMECMD='util/slowest 10 0.5'
For each Coq file compiled, the timing of the 10 slowest steps taking at least 0.5 seconds will be displayed.
You may time both steps and files like this:
$ make MOREFLAGS=-time TIMECMD='gtime -f "user time %U: $(basename $*)" util/slowest 10 0.5'
To speed up execution on a machine with multiple cores or pseudo-cores, specify the use of multiple processes in paralle, e.g, 4, as follows.
$ make -j4
The correct version of Coq is built and used automatically by the command
make. (If you wish to bypass the building of Coq and use your own version,
then follow the instructions in the file build/Makefile-configuration-template.)
UniMath/.dir-locals.el contains code that arranges for
Proof General to use the Coq programs built by
make when one of the proof
files of UniMath is opened in emacs; in order to use them more generally, such
as from the command line,, then add the full path for the directory
./sub/coq/bin to your
PATH environment variable, or set the emacs
coq-prog-name in your emacs initialization file,
The various *.v files are compiled by Coq in such a way that the fully
qualified name of each identifier begins with UniMath. For example, the fully
qualified name of
maponpaths in uu0.v is
The preferred way to interact with the Coq code is with Proof General, running
in a modern version of emacs. The file UniMath/.dir-locals.el will set the
coq-prog-args appropriately. In particular, it will add the
directory UniMath to the path, using the
-R option, and it will arrange for
files with names of the form
*.v to be edited in “Coq mode”.
We are using some unicode characters in our Coq files. One way to type such
characters easily is with the “Agda input method”: to type σ, for example, one
types \sigma, which is automatically replaced by σ. We have arranged for the
Agda input method to be automatically enabled in buffers containing one of the
UniMath Coq files. The emacs command for viewing the typing shortcuts offered
by the Agda input method is
In this section we describe some problems that have been encountered during compilation, and how to fix them.
The following type mismatch error during compilation of Coq results from a mismatch between the version of OCaml used and the version of Coq being compiled.
"/usr/local/bin/ocamlfind" opt -rectypes -dtypes -w -3-52-56 -I config -I lib -I kernel -I kernel/byterun -I library -I proofs -I tactics -I pretyping -I interp -I stm -I toplevel -I parsing -I printing -I intf -I engine -I ltac -I tools -I tools/coqdoc -I plugins/omega -I plugins/romega -I plugins/micromega -I plugins/quote -I plugins/setoid_ring -I plugins/extraction -I plugins/fourier -I plugins/cc -I plugins/funind -I plugins/firstorder -I plugins/derive -I plugins/rtauto -I plugins/nsatz -I plugins/syntax -I plugins/decl_mode -I plugins/btauto -I plugins/ssrmatching -I plugins/ltac -I "/usr/local/Cellar/camlp5/7.03_1/lib/ocaml/camlp5" -thread -g -c lib/pp_control.ml File "lib/pp_control.ml", line 61, characters 22-33: Error: This expression has type bytes -> int -> int -> unit but an expression was expected of type string -> int -> int -> unit Type bytes is not compatible with type string
For example, Coq 8.6.1 cannot be compiled by OCaml 4.06.0, and must instead be compiled by an older version. In the instructions above, we arrange for OCaml 4.02.3 to be used to compile Coq 8.6.1.
make, various files are read, some of them not under version control by git.
If those files are ill-formed,
make stops working; in particular,
make cannot be used to delete and recreate those files.
When such a situation arises, one solution is to try cleaning everything with this command:
$ make INCLUDE=no distclean
Another solution is to let git do the cleaning, by running:
$ git clean -Xdfq $ git submodule foreach git clean -Xdfq
The Makefile provides this pair of commands, too:
$ make INCLUDE=no git-clean
If you get error messages involving the command line option
might be running Mac OS X 10.9 with an OCaml compiler installed by
that case try
brew update brew upgrade objective-caml
If that doesn’t work, try
brew remove objective-caml brew install objective-caml
If you get the error message
Error: cannot find 'ocamlc.opt' in your path!, you need to install
ocaml-native-compilers, e.g., by running
$ sudo apt-get install ocaml-native-compilers
This package is not among the build dependencies for older versions of Coq.
To regularly update the TAGS file, you may build with the command
make TAGS all.
Before submitting a pull request, developers should run the sanity checks that are specified
in the Makefile by adding
sanity-checks to the “make” command line.
One of the sanity checks checks that all proof files in the directory tree
are listed in the corresponding package, but it will complain even about
files you haven’t checked in; to disable the test, add
check-listing-of-proof-files to the “make” command line. Other sanity
checks can be skipped the same way. For example, if you intend to make a
change to the Foundations package, then you can add
check-for-change-to-Foundations to the “make” command line.
Memory limits: pull requests are tested automatically by “travis” at github,
and at that point, a memory limit is imposed to ensure reproducibility of
results to and to prevent excessive memory usage. To apply the same memory
limit on your own machine before submitting a pull request, add
LIMIT_MEMORY=yes to the
make command line. Unfortunately, under Mac OS
X, such memory limits are ineffective, so you may prefer to run the test